This research is based on the role of human resource management in the hospitality industry with focus on its performance in south eastern Nigeria. The major problem that prompted this research is streamlined into ineffective and inefficient human resource management in the hospitality industry. The objective of the study was to identify the best way of using human resource management in the hospitality industry to ensure effective and efficient performance. The research adopted indebt survey method for data collection. Chi-square was used for data analysis. In the cause of the work, the researcher identified that the lapses in the hospitality can be said to have been caused by many factors amongst which are lack of industrial relation, motivational incentives, poor remuneration etc. Conclusively, the researcher based on the findings of the study made recommendations which include establishment of functional human resources management department. Furthermore there is need to employ skillful manager that knows the nitty-gritty of personnel policy should be formulated which will incorporate job security for workers opportunity for growth and development of every work to help to achieve self actualization.
1.1BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The subject matter of the research focuses on the roles of human resources management in the hospitality industry performance. Managing human resources in the hospitality industry presents special challenges, including highly diverse employee backgrounds and roles, or ever-present focus on guest services, and organizational structures that often diverge from generic corporate models. Human resource management in the Hospitality Industry provides the definitive guide to successfully employing people in a hospitality organization.
Human Resources Dilemmas faced by Managers in the Hospitality Industry, include the under listed:
1. Understanding the needs of a broad employee group, from hourly workers with tip credit eligibility questions to high level accountants ensuring Sar banes-oxley compliance.
2. How hospitality managers who must act as one-person HR department can make effective decision and understand the consequences to themselves, their workers and employers.
3. Working with Labour Unions in the hospitality industry using the labour-related legislation that affects the industry.
4. Managing employees in a global hospitality enterprise.
Effective human resource management is pivotal in any business or non-business organization where people are grouped collectively for the purpose of achieving organizational goals and objectives. It is true that some people adhere to the fact that finance is the life wire of any organization but without human resource, finance cannot combine other factors of production to achieve the desired goal of the organization. Human resource is so important and should be seen as invaluable assets of a firm as asserts by Agbato (1980:27) that a company’s most important resource is human resources. The human resource is the personnel and personnel department who staff the firm with the desired workers or managers. Their importance cannot be over-emphasized. Any company’s success, on the final analysis, depends mostly on the quality of the people who work for it, that is personnel or human resource. This, of course, includes workers and managers at all levels in the organization from top to bottom. It is a common business fact that a financed firm or even the best equipped plant will not function properly or make good profit if its workers and managers are incompetent.
This, then, is the reason why the human resource must be well managed in any type of organizational set up.
It is however, regrettable that although most managers recognize the value of company personnel, only very few of such managers put value or high premium on the firm or company’s human assets. To
illustrate this assumption, take an example of a company whose balance sheet lists a typewriter saw as an asset.
Today, as the business world progresses, it is being gradually recognized that the personnel department has a distinct role to play. Its traditional functions include recruitment of new employees, training, development and appraisal of employees, motivation, industrial relations (Labour Union, organization, Collective bargaining, development in labour relations), services and advisory relationship.
The hospitality industry cannot succeed without organizational performance of her human resources. It is truism according to Efuk (1993:243) organization effectiveness, the capacity of an organization to adopt, maintain itself, survive, and grow in the face of changing conditions, depends to a considerable degree upon how effectively its work-force can be managed and utilized. This is so because the human resource of an organization which comprises all individuals, regardless of their role and status, who are engaged in any of the organizational activities are its most important and valuable assets. Industries generally and business organizations in particular have been slow to realize and accept that their personnel are usually more important than machines. This is why the history of Labour Unions is replete with stories of conflict between management and employment. But the growth of powerful labour unions and scarcity of qualified personnel have jointly forced management to change their attitude by showing that they are interested
in each employee as an individual and by developing the spirit of co-operation.
The specialized responsibilities for employee relations are now generally recognized as primary staff function performed by the personnel manager who is the specialist in charge of the personnel department.
Lack of effective management of human resources is a constraint facing Nigeria as a developing country. The limitation is not only restricted to one sector of the economy, the hospitality industry as a service oriented business suffer more in terms of the adverse effect. The cumulative effect and evidential impact could be cited for low service delivery and the dearth of excellent services in the hospitality industry. According to Onwuchekwa (1995:7) personnel management has become very important in the achievement of the objectives of any business organization. It helps the business firm to maintain an effective work force. The personnel manager understands the expectations of the workers and society in human resources development. So, through the activities of personnel management, the organization, the individual, and society can satisfy their objectives.
The role of personnel management has significantly changed in modern times. At first the dominant role was to satisfy top management in procuring and maintaining a workforce that would be instrumental in organizational productivity. As acknowledge by Flippo, 1985 in Onwuchekwa (1999:7) the manager understands the necessity for
ascertaining and accommodating the needs of human beings who constitute the workforce. He or she constantly searches for the programme which would support the accomplishments of both organizational and individual objectives.
Nwachukwu (1990:175), observed that human resource of an organization is its most important asset. The success or failure of the enterprise depends on the people who must work there. Failure by an entrepreneur to recognize this, may lead to many unsavory results.
The entrepreneur must recognize that the selection of employees is one of his most important tasks. The hospitality sector of the Nigerian economy is very wide within the tourism industry. As asserted by Okoli (2001:1`2) on the component of tourism drawing from the experience of Thomas and Thomas (1992:14), identified the most important tourism product as transport, stay and attraction. Included in the modes of transport are land, water and air while attraction component of tourism involves climate, nature, shopping facilities and leisure. Examples of tourism attraction facilities in Nigeria and elsewhere are the National War Museum, Umuahia (Abia State), Ogbunike Cave (Anambra State), Yankari National Park (Bauchi), Oguta Lake Hotel and Zoological Garden Nekede (Imo State) and Argungo Fishing Festival (Kebbi State), among others.
On stay as a component, hospitality business takes care of it as the lodging of a tourist in hostels, motels, guest house etc, the food and
beverages served, how they are served, when and the manner constitute tourism attractions. These functions are done by human resources.
Inyanga and Ifegbo (2006:98) supported the view of Okoli that hospitality sector is part of the tourism industry and stresses on the essence of hospitality and tourism. Rest has its own place in life. God created the day for work and night for rest and created official and unofficial hours and also provided for rest. But does man really rest? How many of us actually take time out to rest and visit places of our interest when we tend to work during leave periods? Rest is what repairs the body mentally, physically and otherwise. A person gets enough rest is bound to be more productive (Agibe, 2006:5). This is where tourism comes in as a brain box towards the growth of every man on earth. From the words of Bassey (2006:22), tourism markets have the potential to enhance lives in a sustainable framework through providing wealth creation, choice, innovation and competition. The travel and tourism industry contains these four elements that enables it become a dynamic market force for sustainability in the future. It has the capacity to increase exports, bring in capital investment, boost economics (GDP) and create employment.
Following these opportunities of the sectors, the federal, state and local government and some private business entrepreneurs invested much resource in tourism in Nigeria. The extent to which the benefits realized as equated to the investments made is still another subject
matter. What is important is that for tourism business to be highly developed and promoted in Nigeria, the sector operators have to be well equipped with component human resources.
1.2STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The industry is plagued by many challenges that have hindered effectiveness and efficiency. One of these is inability of management in hospitality business to carry out effective and efficient human resources management. Be it as it may, the hospitality industry requires good reception, courtesy etc.
However, these are lacking due to poor human resource management. The core of the problems facing hospitality industry can be traced to poor recruitment exercise based on unprofessional procedure of hiring workers e.g recruitment based on god-fatherism, nepotism, ethnicity, poor remuneration of workers promote high rate of labour turnover. The industry is therefore not attractive to highly qualified workers due to inadequate motivational incentives.
Some of the hotels see no need for training and manpower development despite the fact that most of their workers have low level of education, semi-illiterate and poor skill in hospitality business.
Lack of good industrial relations is something that always transfers aggression from workers to customers.
The general attendant effect of poor human resource management leads to low patronage, low sales, when the sale volume is low there will be decline in sales revenue and consequently this will lead to business failure in the hospitality industry.
1.3OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The aim of this study is basically to help manager finds out the best way of using human resources management in the hospitality industry for effective and efficient performance in South Eastern Nigeria.
The following specific objectives will also be pursued:
i. To ascertain modern ways for employment.
ii. To investigate techniques for good training and manpower development.
iii. To examine the method for wages and salary administration.
iv. To identify problems affecting hospitality industry.
v. To create peaceful steps for industrial relations.
The basic research questions for the study are enumerated below:
i. What are the best ways for effective and efficient human resources management in the hospitality industry?
ii. What are the modern procedures for employment?
iii. What are the problems affecting human resources management in hospitality industry?
iv. What are the techniques for good training and manpower development?
v. What are the method for wages and salary administration?
vi. What are most peaceful steps for industrial relations?