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EXAMINING THE PERCEIVED EFFECTS OF WORKPLACE VIOLENCE ON EMPLOYEES IN HOSPITALITY SECTOR IN CAMEROON

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EXAMINING THE PERCEIVED EFFECTS OF WORKPLACE VIOLENCE ON EMPLOYEES IN HOSPITALITY SECTOR IN CAMEROON

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Study

Workplace violence (WPV) stands as a critical social and human resource concern, particularly within the hospitality sector. It has been correlated with suicidal tendencies and diminished mental well-being (Amin et al., 2020). Moreover, WPV represents a form of workplace injustice contributing to disparities in occupational health (Berquist, 2018). However, existing research has predominantly examined organizational culture and preventive measures against WPV, as well as strategies to enhance reporting . Conversely, there's been limited exploration into the actual WPV occurrences and their immediate impacts on employees in the hospitality sector. Some studies have revealed that rapid responses to WPV incidents have left- employees unable to categorize their experiences as such, potentially leading them to either report the incidents or directly confront the perpetrators (Chao et al., 2019). Furthermore, qualitative studies conducted across hospitality and other work environments have underscored the multidimensional consequences of WPV, encompassing job-related, psychological, and health-related ramifications (Duan et al., 2019). These include decreased job satisfaction, withdrawal from organizational engagement, declines in productivity, increased stress, and adverse psychological well-being. Additionally, WPV has been associated with heightened financial stress, altering career trajectories, and negatively impacting organizational performance. Despite the emergence of initiatives spurred by some organizations to combat WPV, individual responses to such incidents often veer away from labeling them as harassment to avoid repercussions (Courcy, Morin & Madore, 2019). Furthermore, studies suggest that factors like feminist identity and dress code adherence could influence women's perceptions and tolerance levels toward WPV . In the hospitality industry, WPV has been linked to high staff turnover rates, reduced profitability, and tarnished organizational reputations (Chao et al., 2019). It also poses a threat to customer service standards and contributes to the industry's risky image (Guerrier,2022). Moreover, WPV's repercussions extend to personal and occupational well-being, including risk-taking behaviors, substance abuse, chronic illnesses, and pain, with some studies even indicating associations with mental disorders (Worke, 2022). Despite the significant employees’ workforce in the hospitality industry, particularly in regions like Ethiopia, the effects of WPV on employees remain understudied in this context (Sinclair, 2018). Addressing WPV comprehensively requires attention to its various dimensions, including reproductive health outcomes, to ensure the well-being and empowerment of e in hospitality and similar sectors. This study will therefore carried out a survey  in order to examine the perceived effects of workplace violence on employees in hospitality sector in Cameroon.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

Employees face a myriad of challenges in relation to their workplace environment. Work environment strongly influences the extent to which employees are engaged at their workplace and committed to the organization.  According to Fotabon (2022), if there is violence in the workplace, it causes a very big threat and problem to the productivity of the company.While workplace violence has adverse effects for both persons and companies. It has wide-ranging effects on individuals, affecting both their mental and physical well-being. This includes the emergence of stress-related disorders, as noted by Leymann and Gustafsson (2021). Furthermore, psychological aggressiveness, while not immediately evident, can have a profoundly harmful impact (Namie & Namie, 2020). Throughout history, there has been a greater emphasis and acknowledgment of physical violence as opposed to psychological violence when it comes to employees in civil service. Moreover, workplace violence can stem from a multitude of circumstances. It is possible that this is an instance of uncontrolled aggressiveness carried out by an unstable person or someone who is under the influence of drugs. Alternatively, it could be violence used as a way to intimidate and achieve a specific goal or outcome. Another possible cause could be the unregulated expression of displeasure, which includes extended discomfort, anger, or disputes stemming from cultural or religious disparities among workers (Hong, 2019). Nevertheless, it is incumbent upon management to ensure the prevention of such aggressive attitudes and actions (ILO, 2021). Additionally, experiencing violence at work can create a climate of fear and insecurity among employees. This can lead to reduced morale, disengagement, and a lack of motivation to perform well. When employees feel unsafe in their workplace, they are less likely to be fully committed to their tasks and may even actively seek to avoid certain duties or interactions. Thus, it is in the light of these that the study seeks to examine the perceived effects of workplace violence on employees in hospitality sector in Cameroon.

1.3  Objectives of the Study

The main purpose of this study is to examine the perceived effects of workplace violence on employees in hospitality sector in Cameroon. Specifically, the study will;

1.Investigate the socio-economic consequences of workplace violence on employees

2.Investigate the impact of workplace violence on employees’ stress levels in hospitality sector in Cameroon.

3.Assess the strategies implemented by hospitality organizations in Cameroon to mitigate workplace violence incidents.

1.4 Research Questions

The following questions have been prepared for the study:

What are the socio-economic consequences experienced by employees as a result of workplace violence?

How does workplace violence affect stress levels of employees in the hospitality sector in Cameroon?

What are the strategies implemented by hospitality organizations in Cameroon to mitigate workplace violence incidents?

1.5  Research Hypotheses

H0: Workplace violence has no significant effect on employees in the hospitality sector in Cameroon.

Ha: Workplace violence has a significant effect on employees in the hospitality sector in Cameroon.

1.6  Significance of the Study

The results of this research will assist managers of businesses related to hospitality sector in formulating interventions aimed at protecting the welfare of employees. Also, the study  will reveal to them the need to provide their employees with sufficient support and a sense of security so that they will be assured about their current working position and will be encouraged to increase their performance at the workplace. Additionally, the organizations will gain enhanced comprehension of the financial ramifications, thereby substantiating investments in prevention and intervention initiatives. Furthermore, subsequent researchers will use it as a literature review. This means that other students who may decide to conduct studies in this area will have the opportunity to use this study as available literature that can be subjected to critical review. Invariably, the result of the study contributes immensely to the body of academic knowledge with regard to the perceived effects of workplace violence on employees in hospitality sector in Cameroon. 

1.7 Scope of the study

The scope of this study is boarded on the perceived effects of workplace violence on employees in hospitality sector in Cameroon.  Empirically, the study will investigate the socio-economic consequences of workplace violence on employees, investigate the impact of workplace violence on employees’ stress levels in hospitality sector in Cameroon and assess the strategies implemented by hospitality organizations in Cameroon to mitigate workplace violence incidents.

Geographically, the study will be delimited to employees in some selected hospitality organizations in Yaounde, Cameroon.

1.8 Limitation of the study

In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, language barriers, and the attitude of the respondents. In addition, there was the element of researcher bias. Here, the researcher possessed some biases that may have been reflected in the way the data was collected, the type of people interviewed or sampled, and how the data gathered was interpreted thereafter. The potential for all this to influence the findings and conclusions could not be downplayed. More so, the findings of this study are limited to the sample population in the study area, hence they may not be suitable for use in comparison to other schools, local governments, states, and other countries in the world.

1.9 Definition of Terms

Workplace violence: any act or threat of physical violence, harassment, intimidation, or other aggressive behavior that occurs in or is related to the workplace (Al-Shiyab & Ababneh, 2018)

Hospitality industry: includes a wide range of businesses and services that cater to the needs of travelers and guests. This sector includes hotels, restaurants, bars, resorts, event planning, tourism, and related services.


This material content is developed to serve as a GUIDE for students to conduct academic research



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  • Methodology: Yes available


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