Tuoyo (1982) pointed out the electricity occupies a strategic position in the social and industrial development or any country and in indeed any company n industrial age, .he further affirmed that without electricity, economic and industrial activities might be paralyzed. The National electricity corporation ofNigeriaand the Niger Dams Authority development and allocation inNigeria. NEPA there fore, constitutes for the purpose of developing the vastNigeriafor the purpose of development the vastNigeria primary electricity resources as consumers.
The demand for electricity supply is rated higher than the supply provided by NEPA. This has led to, the irregular supply of electricity provided by NEPA inNigeriaespecially atEnugudistrict.. The significance of electricity is such better appreciated, when one realizes that all-manufacturing processes on whatever scale requires electric current. In fact, it can it be stated that in most cases, other sectors of the economy rely on the available of the electricity for its existence t and surval. NEPA was therefore, established to operate with a focus on social, economic and political objective which are expected to be met simultaneously. A critical examination of those objectives shows that there are conflicts in their simultaneous fulfillment. For example, resource mobilization ad revenue generation objectives are pure economic goals, which focus focus on equity principle a purely social goal. The combination and pursuance of these goals with spurious harmonization and sometime stifling ministerial comfort especially on pricing investment and administration decision create serious management, operational and organizational problem. These problems have reflected in the poor financial returns to investment in NEPA and also quality of institutional performance in terms of electricity supply distribution network system, irregular meter reading and billing illegal connection, successive production cost irregular equipment, servicing and maintenance.
Management must actively plan now for change and the effect of change (Thomas, 1985). New technology, trends in design, new consumer services, fashions in product, changes in labour market, competition among other must have to be planned for to be able to survive technological change of this information and age (livy, 1988). Peter sheal and weatherman (1982) averred that today, we are replacing the managers as order giver, with the manager as d mobilize, sensitize, and a coach. The order giver, manager have all the answer and tell every one what to do. While the manger, or sensitize know how to draw the answer out of those who know them best or the people doing the job. This is what Naissbitt and abundance (1990). Described as the necessary principles for co-operation. Co-production and cross-fertilization of ideas and exchange of formation and expertise. They Further affirmed that the resultant impact of the above necessary principle include: to stimulate workers to embark on change to discover the potentials inherent in their lives as man and apply those potential to become more althonomous, to encourage workers towards action in form of open expression based on critical view of ideas and interest. Sheal (1992) noted that there are four reasons why staff training has become more important in the growth and development of the present society. These four reasons include:
Completion and market pressure for improvement in the quality of products and services. Rapid change in technology and the job people do.
Changes in the work force composition and expectations.
Immediate long – term skills, shortages. With accelerating changes in technology and system many traditional industrial and clerical jobs have changed, radically or become obsolete. Golds with and Buck (1985) opened that new jobs have been created particular in the service and information based industries. United state labour Department (1987) adduced that an average American entering the work force today will change career at least three time during his working life a similar situation applies to European workers who are now facing the increased Labour mobility and skill demands generated by single market. The further made it clear that in order to cope with these changes, people need portable skills that will keep them employable when their current job change or vanish. When organization recruit workers, they may have the skill and experience to do the job but as work environment and job changes, they need to up data their skills. If employees, don’t have opportunities for training, retraining and development the (they and) their skill can become obsolete. Dore (1976) opportunities for training and updating their industries will become obsolete. Callaway(1984) stressed that technological development have led to a high percentage of skills and knowledge based jobs a greater demand for skilled workers. He also opined that there is problem for countries likeNigeria, unlikeFrancethat has 80 percent skilled workers, Haly 78 percent andGermany67 percent. These figures according to peter sheal (1992) explains why developing countries such asNigerhave very high unemployment, this lack of skilled workers has limited business expansion and the use of new technology and production techniques. In the past people expected their education and training to last for time. Now it is only a basic foundation for a persons working life the implication is that need constant education and training today to enable him develop as to able to acquire empowerment necessary as a mean redefining, the motions for adapting to the changing technology in Nigeria, the increasing proportion of managerial, supervisory and professional workers in the work force has led to a greater demand or professional development greater demand or professional development opportunities. This in turn has encouraged a demand from all levels of staffs for increased training and development. Nobody want to be obsolete in his career. Beeker and Tobia (1990) affirmed that increase in recognition that only quality products and services. Many organization are introducing quality management and quality assurance programmes which requires the co-operation involvement and retraining of the work force it they are to be successful staft training and development are recognized as the primary means for achieving the needed better quality products and service required to compete in the world markets.
The idea that managers and supervisors should be responsible for training and developing their staff is still fairly new but rapidly gaining influences. Sheal (1992) presented some reasons for training of staff for improving performances as follows that leadership means influencing the behaviour of other staff positively that is by helping them to improve their knowledge and skills. Problems. In short, poor communication among staff, lack of training or immature attitudes. By ensuring that you staff are trained and helped to develop their skill you can be on the way of success. Many organizations are encouraging their staff to become proactive and less bureaucratic. Decision-making is being pushed down the line, with more emphasis being placed together in teams and assuming greater responsibility. Staff training and development is one as pect of this proactive approach to management and one way of generating more initiative and flexibility in your people. No braining is value free. If the basic values and philosophy of training are not those of the work place and conflict with other employees, feel disappointed and frustrated when they return to their job.
Involving activities related training and development include:
i. Discussing future, work with your employees.
Ii Introducing a new staff to the department
Iii Getting one staff to show another how to do something.
Iv Conducting staff meeting
Vi Coaching one staff and providing guide line
Vi Conducting a performance review meeting Bennett, (1989) and fowler (1990), Bucklay and cable 1990 averred that the greatest problem in developing countries is wrong attitude to work both managers and supervisor who feel they are the Boss (alpha and omega) while others are servers to them. Sheal and Austin (1989) assumed up that staff training and development is face to face leadership that pulls together people with interests, encourage them to step up to responsibility and continued achievement and treats as full scaled partners and contributors. However, it are silt of fraud, moral Laxity, found in Electricity corporation of Nigeria (ECN) and the Niger Dams Authority (NEPA). Also, there has been retrenchment and threats to retrenchment. Despite efforts made in staff training and development in NEPA Enugu has gone. This is because of the nature of the job and demand on the staff at any time. It is to find out the relevant of other people views and personal experience on staff training that motivated the research to take to this study.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The problems of this study include:
How adequate or inadequate the resources human and non-human available encourage staff training in NEPA,Enugu.
Difficulties in understanding the extent NEPA’s objective are achieved.
How the avail able training will meet the needs of the staff of NEPA,Enugu.
How political and leadership style staff training programmes in NEPA.
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The problem of this study includes the following:
Ascertaining the adequacy of resource of resource of NEPA.
Determining the extent the object are achieved.
Ascertaining how the training scheme meet the staff needs and the relation ship with the job on return.
Determining how political or leadership style affect staff training programmers in the NEPA.
To guide this study four researches were formulates follows:
To what are the extents of resource adequacy for NEPA staff training for improved out put?
What are the extents to which the objectives of staff development in NEPA Enugu are be achieved?
How does the available training meet the needs of the staff with relevance to their Job?
How does political and leadership style affect staff training programmes in NEPA?
SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The scope of this study is limited to national electric power authority. The main focus of the study borders on resources, objective training needs it relevance to job on return and leadership style impact of their training programme.
1 the result of this study would help exposes the level of resource available for the implementation of staff training scheme.
Also, it would help the NEPA evaluate the past and if possible make amend where necessary.
The result would help the management of NEPA to see the extent their main objectives are being achieved.
This finding would also create the base that would provide a focus that if staff training decisions are based on policy and produce, NEPA are likely to be made better and more economical.
It is hoped that the result of the study would create base that would facilitate the understanding of need for change and plan a head for the effect.
It is also expected that the result would help suggest systems approach to management. This involves planning, organizing staffing controlling and co-ordinating for greater result of workers productivity
THEHISTORY OF NEPA
Electric power development inNigeriastarted towards the closing year of the last century when the first generating plant was installed in the city ofLagosin 1898.
From this data onwards and until 1950, the pattern of electricity development was in the form of individual electricity undertaking set- at various towns, some of them by the federal government under the jurisdiction of the public works department, some by the Native Authorities and one or two large municipal authorities.
Electricity Corporation ofNigeriain1950, in order to integrate power development and make it effective, the government passed the electricity corporation ofNigeriaordinance No 15 of 1950. Ordinance brought under one control the electricity undertaking section of the public work department and all those undertaking which were under Native Authority or municipal ownership and control.
The electricity corporation of Nigeria, usually referred to as” E.C.N” then become the statutory body respond for generation, transmission, distribution and sales of electricity to all consumers in Nigeria.
The Niger Dam Authority was established by an act of parliament in 1962.
The authority was responsible for the construction and maintenance of dams and other work on the riverNigerand elsewhere generating electricity by means of water improving navigator and promoting fisheries and irrigation. Construction of kanji dam which began in March 1964 was completed on schedule in December, 1968.
NATIONAL ELECTRIC POWER AUTHORY
In September, 1969 the federal military government decided to merge the electricity corporation ofNigeriaand the dams
Authority into a single body. A year later, a (Canadian firm of consultants “Shawmut limited, was submitted in November, 1971.
By Decree No 24 of29th June 1972(which became effective from Ist April 1972) the electricity corporation of Nigeria (E.C.N) theNigerdams authority (N.D.A) were merged to become the national electric power authority N.E.P.A).
The actual merger did not take place until6th January 1973when a general manager was appointed. The decree stipulates that the authority is to develop and maintain and efficient co-ordinated and economical system of electricity supply for all parts of the federation.
The affairs of the authority are run by a nine member board whose members and chairman were appointed by the federal government. The authority is also accountable to the federal government through the federalministry of mines and power. The board is to lay down the policy of the authority and the chief executive (general manage) sees to it that all decisions of the board are efficiently executed.
NEPA IN THE EIGHTIES
To some people, NEPA appears not so efficient being wholly staffed and run byNigeria. Our aim in this pamplet is to present NEPA as it really is, to spotlight out efforts and also pinpoints out setbacks.
The decree which establish NEPA in1972 stipulates that it should develop and maintain and efficient, co-ordinated and economical system of electricity supply for all parts of Nigeria. In other countries the electricity
authority is informed about projects at the planning stage but in about projects at the planning stage but in Nigeria NEPA only get to know when project are about to be commissioned at perform miracles.
NEPA therefore has no choice but to accommodate the resulting increase in power demand in that area.
NEPA was created as a merger of the former electricity corporation of Nigeria (ECN) which was mainly responsible for distribution and sales are the formerNigerdams authority (NDA) created to build and run generating station and transmission lines. The organizations were primarily for the following reason:
it would result in the vasting of the production and it distribution of electricity power supply throughout the country in one organization which will assume responsibility for the financial obligation and
The integrate of the ECN and NDA should result in the more effective utilization of the human financial and other resource available to the electricity supply industry throughout the country.
DECENTRALIZATION THE DIRECTORATES
The national electricity power authority has decentralized its distribution division. To this end the country has been divided into five operating directorate these areLagosdirectorate withLagosas head office.
The distribution function of NEPA is carred out in every state by the directors of distribution who has delegated powers. Eg the district manager has delegated power to carred out their normal duties of efficient operation.
Shortage of trained manpower is certainly one of the problem which NEPA has to contend. As it is generally known, it takes time for a professional complete engineer. The authority is planning to expand the training center inLagosby moving at to a new site a long badagry load.
The authority and the public as for the authority reaction to public criticism of its performances public criticism by itself is understandable because of the very nature of electrical energy production and sales. Used every minute of the 24 hours in a day, electricity affects almost every facet of our daily lives. By public criticism of NEPA is mostly unconstructive and definitely frustrating to serving staff.
No. of staff trained/ developed in the past3/4/5yrs.
2002 - 478 Ogui/ Abakpa B/U
2003 - 509
2004 - 307
2005 - 342
Other statistical information (attached)
Manpower state origin distribution statistic.
Manpower inventory statistics
Summary of manpower statistics
Transfer (in & out)
It is hoped that the result of the study would help in recruiting skilled and experience managers proper human rotation to ensure top-down and down-up communication to avid suspicion mistrust conflict and frustration. It is also hoped that finding of this study would create the needed awareness for active planning for change and the effect of change. This would help NEPA to enage cost effective short and long-term ventures using right brains and right hands. The result would help NEPA to assess their overall performance, for modification adjustment and stabilization. Finally, this study would serve as work or reference to future researchers.