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IMPACT OF CORRUPTION ON PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION; EXPLORING THE STRATEGIES FOR MITIGATING CORRUPTION IN THE PUBLIC SECTOR (A CASE STUDY OF JIGAWA STATE)

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IMPACT OF CORRUPTION ON PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION; EXPLORING THE STRATEGIES FOR MITIGATING CORRUPTION IN THE PUBLIC SECTOR (A CASE STUDY OF JIGAWA STATE)

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1  Background Of The Study

Corruption is obviously a global phenomenon. The malaise under consideration has presented a substantial obstacle to the developmental initiatives of many countries worldwide, and this hazard persists to this day. Corruption is evident in both "developed" and "developing" societies. Dike (2020) cites Lipset and Lenz (2000) as saying that corruption is a characteristic of democratic and dictatorial political systems, socialist, capitalist, and feudal economies. In addition, since the beginning of time, corrupt practices have occurred frequently. The presence of widespread immorality and corruption may have been present within ancient civilizations. Hence, corruption has consistently plagued intricate societies across the annals of time, such as ancient Egypt, Israel, Rome, Greece, and the contemporary era. The only noticeable differences between the two are in terms of magnitude and the methods utilised to detect and resolve corruption issues involving government officials and their associates. In light of Africa's ongoing struggle to achieve a particular standard of national development in its developing nations, corruption's detrimental effects on these initiatives cannot be ignored. 

The state of corruption in Nigeria is an even greater source of concern. It has attained the proportions of a pandemic. It has exerted an influence on every aspect of our national existence, including the private sectors. The public service, the government agency tasked with implementing transformative initiatives, has been detrimental to both good governance and overall national development due to its systemic corruption. There is no doubt that the countless consequences of a compromised public administration have lasting and immediate effects on the socioeconomic standing of the general public. According to Ngu (2018), public administration encompasses the mechanisms through which the government provides economic and social services to the general public. Particularly in newly formed states, the expansion and diversification of governmental functions in recent years have resulted in an unmanageable growth of modern bureaucracies. In these nascent states, public expectations of the government persistently increase as it assumes an increasingly significant role in the daily lives of ordinary citizens (Reters 1978, Radley 2020). Further support for this assertion was provided by Ngu (2018). "Today, administration influences all facets of life." It exercises authority over the implementation and enforcement of legislation, develops policies, provides counsel to the legislature, and renders diverse determinations, either autonomously or in conjunction with governmental entities, local governing bodies, and parastatals. Departments and agencies of the government exert a substantial influence on the daily lives of the majority. These entities encompass the regulatory bodies tasked with overseeing housing, water and electricity, urban development, pension and gratuities, and health and sanitation, among others. 

The efficacy or inefficacy of a government is substantially influenced by its public administration. It is the duty of power to guarantee efficient governance. Agbenyo (2022) characterises it as "the engine house and shaft" of society, serving as the propellant for democratic, political, and social advancement. The persistent nature of the issue can be ascribed to the well-established principles regarding the satisfaction and remuneration of public servants. Further components comprise policies and guidelines, colloquially known as "red tape," which fosters rational decision-making and administrative effectiveness, thus laying the groundwork for a sustainable society or government. Prejudice, tribalism, corruption, and nepotism are all eradicated by this system. 

Ngu (2018) asserts that the public administration has been subject to substantial censure due to corruption, inefficiency, inadequate management, and the misuse of unrestrained discretionary authority, all of which undermine the rights of the populace instead of protecting them. In recognition of these concerns, the 1998 civil service reform swore that officers who resigned from office would remain answerable for their actions, given that they could be recalled at any time thereafter. Identifying occurrences of corruption within the service was the objective. Sani (2019) asserts that the concept of "corruption" permeates the comprehension of individuals, including experts. However, there is now widespread agreement that corruption is in direct opposition to ethical principles. Ethics may be conceptualised as a structure comprising moral principles and conduct standards that unequivocally forbid any breach of public confidence, in addition to the misuse and exploitation of public office for malevolent purposes. Therefore, it concerns itself with the manner in which public and private enterprises operate. It is both an ethical discipline and a set of principles that govern the behaviour of government employees and members of the general public when engaging with legislators, bureaucrats, and the public. Because of this, corruption constitutes an unethical situation. 

As has been previously illustrated, corruption manifests in an extensive variety of aspects. Bribery, defined as the exchange of monetary or non-monetary benefits in exchange for currency, may be utilised to acquire an undeserved advantage, favour, or preference. Contract inflation or excessive invoicing may be occurring. This can be observed in instances where individuals exploit their position to promote narrow-minded concerns (such as ethnicity, tribalism, or religion) in the selection process for employment and political appointments, rather than evaluating candidates based on their merit. Corruption can materialise in the form of explicit misappropriation or embezzlement of funds allocated by the government. Gerrymandering and other forms of political manipulation, including intimidation, gerrymandering, and the outright murder of political opponents or rivals, as well as poor leadership, nepotism, unauthorised tenure extension, and a disregard for the rule of law and fundamental human rights of opponents, are all manifestations of corruption in the political sphere. Moreover, in the field of economics, this is manifested through ineffective service provision, particularly the omission of essential infrastructure amenities that have a direct impact on the socioeconomic well-being of the general populace, and prolonged periods of labour without remuneration. It is extensive and substantial in scope and magnitude in its manifestation. Even members of the international community are now hesitant to transact business with the Nigerian people or government due to the deteriorating situation. In an effort to achieve this goal, Nigeria has been consistently ranked among the most corrupt countries on an international scale. Corruption is a serious issue in developing countries, with Nigeria serving as a prime example, according to Asaju and Adagba (2021). As the authors assert, the malaise impedes the progress of national development initiatives as a whole and worsens the socioeconomic conditions of the populace, which have far-reaching short-term and long-term repercussions. 

It is not an exceptional circumstance that Nigeria faces challenges in implementing effective strategies to mitigate corruption. Over fifty percent of African citizens, according to a survey conducted by Pring and Vrushi (2019) among the populace of African nations, believe that their leaders are failing to combat corruption effectively. In addition, Pring and Vrushi found that corruption poses an extensive array of intricate and multifarious difficulties, notwithstanding the substantial variation in corruption prevalence across countries and public establishments. As a result, fundamental and systemic modifications are necessary to confront the manner in which corruption is regarded and managed. 

1.2 Statement Of The Problem

Corruption is a pervasive worldwide concern that has direct and indirect impacts on the daily lives of individuals (Dahal & Bista, 2018). Corruption is a widespread and challenging problem to address. Significant endeavours have been made by governments, development partners, and nongovernmental organisations (NGOs) to promote anticorruption initiatives (Gutterman & Lohaus, 2018). Corruption remains a widespread concern in many countries, defying the endeavours of various institutions and governments to eradicate it via legal and other institutional channels (Hope 2023). The literature on anticorruption implementation strategies and corruption is extensive. Nonetheless, the literature demonstrates that the process of formulating and implementing a strategic plan is beset by significant challenges. The majority of authors (Candido & Santos, 2018) assert that thirty to seventy percent of the development and implementation of strategic plans fail. The complexity of anticorruption makes its implementation a critical challenge for the vast majority of governments, institutions, and organisations. Heywood (2018) asserts that neglecting contexts, actors, categories, and other facilitating factors in corruption analysis results in inaccurate policy prescription and implementation. Sufficient attention must be directed towards the specific issue of corruption.

To this end the researchers tends to analyze the impact of corruption on public administration and exploring strategies for its prevention (a case study of Jigawa state).

1.3 Objective Of The Study

The general aim of this study is to analyze the impact of corruption on public administration; exploring the strategies for mitigating corruption in the public sector (a case study of Jigawa state). The specific aims of this study are outlined below:

Determine the level of corruption within public administration systems of Jigawa State,

Identify the nature of corruption within public administration systems of Jigawa State

Find out the consequences of corruption within public administration systems of Jigawa State. 

Find out the strategies for preventing corruption within public administration systems of Jigawa State.

1.4   Research Questions

The main focus of this research is to provide a valuable response to the questions below.

What is the level of corruption within public administration systems of Jigawa State?

What are the nature of corruption within public administration systems of Jigawa State? 

What are the consequences of corruption within public administration systems of Jigawa State? 

What are the strategies for preventing corruption within public administration systems of Jigawa State?

1.5 Research Hypothesis 

Ho: Corruption has no negative impact of on public administration

Ha: Corruption has a negative impact of on public administration

1.6 Significance Of The Study

The findings of this study will be beneficial for future research and will add to the body of knowledge. It will educate policymakers about the critical nature of quick reforms to the public administration. It will raise the government's pressure to supervise the  public administration activities continuously to ensure that workers do not exceed their authority or engage in corrupt acts.

Additionally, the findings of this research work will undoubtedly provide the much needed information to government organizations, NPF, individuals, NGOS, and academia on the extent of public sector in corruption and the effects it has on the citizens.

1.7  Scope Of The Study

The scope of this study is boarded to analyze the impact of corruption on public administration; exploring the strategies for mitigating corruption in the public sector  using Jigawa state as a case study. Hence the study will be delimited to Federal Inland Revenue Service (FIRS), Jigawa state.

1.8 Limitation of the Study

Like in every human endeavour, the researcher encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size. More so, the researcher simultaneously engaged in this study with other academic work. As a result, the amount of time spent on research will be reduced.

Moreover, the case study method utilized in the study posed some challenges to the investigator including the possibility of biases and poor judgment of issues. However, the investigator relied on respect for the general principles of procedures, justice, fairness, objectivity in observation and recording, and weighing of evidence to overcome the challenges.

1.9 Definition of Terms

Corruption: This is the use of public power for private profit or benefit of a group or class, in such a way that constitutes a breach of law or of standards of high moral conduct. 

Bribery: This is the payment (in money or kind) that is given or taken in a corrupt relationship to pay or receive a bribe is corruption and should be understood as the essence of corruption. A bribe is a fixed sum, a certain percentage of a contract or any other favour in money, kind usually paid to a state official who can make contracts on behalf of the state or otherwise distribute benefits to companies or individuals, businessmen and clients. 

Embezzlement: This is theft of resources by people who are put to administer it; it is when disloyal employees steal from their employers. This a serious offence when public officials are misappropriating public resources, when state officials steal from the public institutions in which he or she is employed and from resources he is supposed to administer on behalf of the public.


This material content is developed to serve as a GUIDE for students to conduct academic research



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