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ROLES OF LEGISLATURE IN THE FIGHT AGAINST CORRUPTION IN NIGERIA

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ROLES OF LEGISLATURE IN THE FIGHT AGAINST CORRUPTION IN NIGERIA

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  1. Background Of The Study

At every level and aspect of the Nigerian political system, corruption is chronic, widespread, and ubiquitous (Attah, 2016). The shocking growth of the vice in recent years is a significant source of genuine alarm. Nigeria continues to astound the world by its amazing waste of opportunities, the barefaced graft of its leaders, and the low grade output of its policy decisions, according to the words of a newspaper columnist named Ayo Olukotun (Awofeso, 2019). In support of this claim, he cited a lamentation for Nigeria written by Joel Brinkley, an American journalist, and recently published in the Los Angeles Times. Brinkley wrote "that a country which takes home close to N225million daily sales from oil is rated by the Economic Intelligence Hunt as one of the worst places to be born on earth in the year 2013 on account of distressingly poor quality of life" (Buhari,2015). This statement was made in reference to the fact that Nigeria is one The West African country of Nigeria has long been considered to be one of the most corrupt countries in the world. According to the findings of a poll conducted by Transparency International in the year 2000, Nigeria was the country with the highest level of corruption. In the poll that included 91 nations, Nigeria came in at number two in the world in the year 2001. It remained in this dishonorable position until the year 2004, after which it moved up to third place the following year (2005). 2006 brought about what appeared to be improvements, as the year ended with a ranking of eighteenth, followed by thirty-second in 2007, and fifty-ninth in 2008. (Elias, 2021). The year 2009 brought a renewed sense of optimism when the country dropped to the forty-fourth position, but since then it has continued on a downward trajectory. In spite of the fact that new countries have been added to the survey index every year since it was first conducted in 2000, the overall ranking has not seen any significant change since that time. In light of these data, the extent of corruption in Nigeria remains extremely concerning, despite the anticorruption laws and campaigns that have been implemented. It is upsetting, quite enormous, and embarassing to say the least that corruption has such a negative impact on the image of the country. It has the potential to be a significant deterrent to the nation's efforts to advance economically, socially, and politically (Elias, 2021). The destructive capacity of corruption to shape attitude, social expectations, and brood norms that gnaw away at the very fabric of virtue and good mores is one of its most alarming features. That brings down the worth of the people. It is possible that the precise history of the vice in the country is still veiled in a great deal of mystery, but its presence, amplitude, and enormity are all readily apparent in the depraved and sensate culture that has a firmer hold on the nation than ever before. According to the literature that is currently available, corrupt practices among the people groups in Nigeria date back to a time before the arrival of the colonial masters in Nigeria8, and the incidence of corrupt practices did not decrease during the time that Nigeria was under colonial administration. (Ojiabor,2016) As the nation attained its freedom, it proceeded to rapidly expand like a blazing fire. One of the primary factors that contributed to the downfall of the first Republic was the widespread presence of the endemic vice. The rise in instances of corrupt behavior that occurred during this time period resulted in the establishment of a number of commissions of inquiry, which were tasked with investigating the actions of the removed politicians (Oluwasegun, 2018). There are three distinct branches of government that make up the Nigerian state. They are the Legislative Branch, the Judicial Branch, and the Executive Branch. These weapons were also known as the organs and branches of the government at various points throughout history. Under a democratic and representative form of government, each of these three branches of the government is responsible for a different but equally important aspect of the art of administration. The Executive branch of government in a country with a presidential form of government, such as Nigeria, is led by the President, who is aided by a Vice President, Ministers, and numerous Ministries and Parastatals. This branch of government is also known as the "executive branch. The President has the authority to exercise the power of the Executive branch of the government by appointing his Vice President and Ministers who will lead the different ministries in the day-to-day operation of the government. This electricity is exercised through the President. On the other side, the National Assembly, which includes both the Senate and the House of Representatives, serves as the government's legislative arm. This assembly is made up of the Senate. There are 109 senators and 360 members of the House of Representatives in the African nation of Nigeria. Both the President of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives are elected by the members of the respective houses to serve as their respective chamber's respective leaders. The President of the Senate leads the Senate, while the Speaker of the House leads the House of Representatives. The Chief Justice of the Federation presides over the Judicial branch of the government, which consists of the Supreme Court as well as the lower federal courts. This branch of the government is responsible for ensuring justice in the country (Nmeribeh,2020). In terms of their respective functions, the Executive branch is accountable for the day-to-day operations of the government as well as the collection of revenue, whereas the Legislative branch is responsible for the creation, passage, and implementation of laws as well as the distribution of funds for the operation of the government. On the other side, it is the responsibility of the Judiciary to provide interpretations of laws and to hear cases that provide arguments against existing laws. Because of inefficiency, stupidity, a lack of dedication, and corruption, these branches of the government, which should be the backbone of our democracy, have been undermined. The legislative arms of the government are of particular interest because they have almost been handcuffed and imprisoned by the demon called corruption. As a result, they have failed to deliver on their mandates, which means that they have failed to make appropriate contributions that would have ensured the sustenance of democracy and good governance in Nigeria. This is of particular interest because the legislative arms of the government have almost been handcuffed and imprisoned by the demon called corruption.Therefore, the study will examine the roles of legislature in the fight against corruption in Nigeria.

    1. Statement of the problem

During successive military governments, corruption had grown so pervasive that it had been institutionalized. Not only was there a blatant attack on the culture of ethical behavior and accountability in the government, but there was also a significant erosion of such culture. Therefore, the reinstatement of democracy and, by extension, the return of a representative assembly was seen as the appropriate medium required to restore accountability and efficiency in the utilization of public resources. This was the case due to the fact that both of these things were deemed necessary (Nmeribeh, 2020). In a democratic system, this is the goal that the assembly's oversight of the administration (also known as "oversight") is supposed to accomplish. In addition to this, the legislature's ability to make laws and serve as a representative body provides an additional boost to an assembly that is determined to combat corruption.

When it comes to exercising authority over the country's budget, the legislature in the Federal Republic of Nigeria is tasked with a significant amount of duty under the country's constitution, which dates back to 1999. In accordance with it, there are constitutional, political, and operational processes that particularly enable the legislature to hold responsible those who have been tasked with the obligation of executing laws passed by it as well as expenditure monies allotted by it. The Constitution designates the legislature as the primary institutional anchorage that should be used in the fight against corruption. In addition, the legislation gives it permission to establish other institutions and structures to help it and the government in carrying out that onerous responsibility. In point of fact, the Constitution seemed to provide the legislature with a sufficient amount of authority and resources to allow it to perform its role as an effective check on the executive branch and the administrative agencies under its jurisdiction in every facet of public administration. It would seem, however, that the legislature at all levels of government – federal, state, and local – has been unable to fully execute the onerous obligations that the Constitution has placed upon it in this respect (Suleiman,2021). In these conditions, one of the most important questions that immediately comes to mind is "where lies the fault?"hence, the study seeks to examine the roles of legislature in the fight against corruption in Nigeria.

    1. Objectives of the study

The broad objective of the study is to examine the roles of legislature in the fight against corruption in Nigeria. The specific objectives of the study is as follows:

  1. To find out the causes of corruption in Nigeria.

  2. To examine the effects of corruption on the development of Nigeria.

  3. To investigate the role of legislature in the fight against corruption in Nigeria.

    1. Research questions

The following questions have been prepared for the study:

  1. What are the causes of corruption in Nigeria?

  2. What are the effects of corruption on the development of Nigeria?

  3. What are the role of legislature in the fight against corruption in Nigeria?

    1. Significance of the study

The report will be helpful to those working to combat corruption, as well as to lawmakers and the Nigerian government in general. The purpose of this research is to investigate how successful Nigeria's legislature has been in the fight against corruption ever since the country was returned to democratic rule in 1999. The operations of the legislative branch of the government in Nigeria will be subjected to the research so that it may serve as a check on such activities.

The study is significant to the academic community as it will contribute to the existing literature.

    1. Scope of the study

The study will find out the factors responsible for corruption in Nigeria. The study will also examine the effects of corruption on the development of Nigeria. The study will further investigate the role of legislature in the fight against corruption in Nigeria. Lastly, the study will recommend ways corruption can be fought against in Nigeria.

    1. Limitations of the study

Like in every human endeavour, the researchers encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire, and interview), which is why the researcher resorted to a moderate choice of sample size. More so, the researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. As a result, the amount of time spent on research will be reduced.

    1. Definition of terms

Legislature: the legislative body of a country or state

Corruption: dishonest or fraudulent conduct by those in power, typically involving bribery.


This material content is developed to serve as a GUIDE for students to conduct academic research



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