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AN ASSESSMENT OF EMPLOYEE PERCEPTION ON THE EFFECTS OF LEADERSHIP STYLES ON PERFORMANCE AND PRODUCTIVITY

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AN ASSESSMENT OF EMPLOYEE PERCEPTION ON THE EFFECTS OF LEADERSHIP STYLES ON PERFORMANCE AND PRODUCTIVITY

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Study

A common goal shared by all businesses and organizations in general is the achievement of goals. However, multiple resource types need to be combined and used for this purpose. These consist of land, capital, and labor, or human resources in general and leadership in particular. The most crucial of these, according to popular opinion, is leadership. 

Leadership is often depicted as a specific behavior demonstrated by a manager to motivate subordinates in accomplishing objectives and enhancing productivity and satisfaction at work (Halaychik, 2018; Trivellas & Drimoussis, 2020). The influence of leadership on employee performance and development is profound, resulting in favorable outcomes for an organization (Skeepers & Mbohwa, 2018). Nevertheless, the interaction between leaders and followers holds significant importance in shaping the trajectory of an organization in the corporate realm (Wu, Fang, & Li, 2018). Furthermore, leadership is defined as a process of social influence with the goal of accomplishing goals. It entails having the ability to motivate subordinates to confidently and enthusiastically pursue both individual and group goals. However, being a leader means taking accountability for the group's achievements. 

In today's fiercely competitive global market, effective leadership stands as a crucial element for the prosperity of organizations across diverse sectors (Tao, Song, Ferguson, & Kochhar, 2018; Toor & Ofori, 2016; Tyssen, Wald, & Spieth, 2019). The impact of leadership is pivotal at all levels of an organization, from small enterprises to multinational corporations worldwide. According to Cao & Wang (2018), inadequate leadership styles has the potential to undermine an organization's integrity and financial performance. Furthermore, in industries like construction where project teams comprise members from various locations who are stationed at project sites, motivating such teams becomes imperative for project success. Employee motivation directly affects performance, thereby influencing project outcomes (Shao, Feng, & Hu, 2018; Yu, Vaagaasar, Müller, Wang, & Zhu, 2019). Additionally, leadership and employee motivation are critical determinants of organizational effectiveness. Wu, Wang, Zou, & Fang (2019) argue that different leadership styles can lead to either success or failure in any business, project, or organization. They further emphasize the importance of identifying the impacts of various leadership styles on employee motivation to achieve the desired level of motivation and enhance work performance.

Studies have identified several factors that influence employee performance, including compensation, work environment, individual goals, productivity and intrinsic motivations. However, across various schools of behavioral theories, scholars generally concur that employee perceived that leadership and leadership styles significantly impact both performance an productivity in an organization. Similarly, leadership consistently emerges as a central concern in management discussions and has garnered prolonged attention ( Moses, 2018). 

Essentially, leadership encompasses the management processes of guiding, influencing, and setting goals. It places emphasis on the human resources within an organization, making it the primary factor affecting employee attitudes, perceptions, and motivation. According to Bass and Avolio (2019), and Burns (2018), there are three different leadership approaches: transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership.  These styles and associated theories formed the basis for the research discussed in this dissertation, including various aspects of organizational effectiveness, performance and productivity and how employee perceive leadership. While numerous leadership styles exist, these three are prominently discussed in the literature and serve as the theoretical framework for this investigation. For a group's endeavors to be successful, the activities of employees necessitate the support and guidance of a leader. Thus, establishing trust and fostering cooperation between leaders and followers is essential for the effective functioning of the organization. Based on this, a survey will be conducted in order to assess employee perception on the effects of leadership styles on productivity.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

A general feeling is that workers exhibit a negative and less responsible attitude to work as a result of the low level of leadership influence open to them (Perrow, 2019). However, various leadership styles in organizations can impede the progress, growth, and efficiency of employees. Some leaders overlook the crucial responsibilities of arranging, supporting, and nurturing their team members. Dealing with individuals with diverse attitudes necessitates tailored approaches corresponding to their motivation levels. Although, effective leadership fundamentally relies on understanding human nature, needs, emotions, and motivation. Unfortunately, some organizations overlook the importance of employing trait-based methods in selecting managers through tests and interviews.

Furthermore, Bran suggests that the term "leadership style" includes all the strategies utilized by decision-makers to maintain continuous and optimal productivity in organizational decision-making processes. Nevertheless, certain leadership styles can provoke resistance among workers, potentially leading to oppression. Consequently, more progressive styles tend to persist over time, yielding favorable outcomes in organizational decision-making. Hence, it is in the light of these that the study seeks to assess employee perception on the effects of leadership styles on productivity.

1.3 Objectives of the Study

The main purpose of this study is to assess employee perception on the effects of leadership styles on productivity. Specifically, the study will;

Assess employee perception on the various leadership styles adopted in manufacturing companies in Yaoundé.

Assess employee perception whether there is a significant relationship between leadership style and organizational productivity of manufacturing companies in Yaoundé

Assess employee perception on the leadership styles which significantly enhances organizational productivity  of manufacturing companies in Yaoundé.

Assess employee perception on the influence of leadership styles on organizational productivity  of manufacturing companies in Yaoundé.

1.4 Research Questions

The following questions have been prepared for the study:

What are the different leadership styles adopted in manufacturing companies in Yaoundé?

Is there a significant relationship between leadership style and organizational productivity in manufacturing companies in Yaoundé?

What are the leadership styles which enhance organizational productivity in manufacturing companies in Yaoundé?

What is the influence of leadership styles on organizational productivity in manufacturing companies in Yaoundé?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

Ho: There is no significant relationship between leadership styles and organizational productivity.

Ha: There is a significant relationship between leadership styles and organizational productivity.

1.6 Significance of the Study

Organizations in Cameroon, as well as their workforce, will greatly benefit from this research. It will enable them to identify the most productive strategies for leadership to employ. Additionally, it will teach their employees the value of effective communication and leadership.

Furthermore, subsequent researchers will use it as a literature review. This means that other students who may decide to conduct studies in this area will have the opportunity to use this study as available literature that can be subjected to critical review. Invariably, the result of the study contributes immensely to the body of academic knowledge with regard to employee perception on the effects of leadership styles on productivity.

1.7 Scope of the study

The scope of this study is boarded on employee perception on the effects of leadership styles on performance and productivity. Empirically, this study will explore the various leadership styles adopted in manufacturing companies in Yaoundé, and the relationship between leadership style and organizational productivity of manufacturing companies in Yaoundé. Geographically, the study will be delimited to employees of manufacturing companies in Yaoundé.

1.8 Limitation of the study

In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, language barriers, and the attitude of the respondents. In addition, there was the element of researcher bias. Here, the researcher possessed some biases that may have been reflected in the way the data was collected, the type of people interviewed or sampled, and how the data gathered was interpreted thereafter. The potential for all this to influence the findings and conclusions could not be downplayed. 

More so, the findings of this study are limited to the sample population in the study area, hence they may not be suitable for use in comparison to other schools, local governments, states, and other countries in the world.

1.9 Definition of Terms

Leadership styles: the diverse approaches and methods that leaders or managers use to guide and influence their teams or organizations.

Productivity:  is often assessed by the amount of goods or services produced per unit of time or per unit of input (such as labor or capital)

Laissez-faire leadership: A leadership approach in which the leader does nothing, cedes control to anyone who wants to use it, doesn't mentor subordinates, and doesn't carry out any leadership duties (Rukmani, Ramesh, & Jayakrishnan, 2020). 

Transactional leader: A leader who checks for errors and uses incentives to get people to comply; a person who can't get staff members to commit to a higher level (McCleskey, 2019). 

Transformational leader: A leader who inspires, motivates, acts with integrity, and encourages others to higher levels of commitment (Onorato, 2018). 


This material content is developed to serve as a GUIDE for students to conduct academic research



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