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WORKPLACE INCIVILITY USING GRAND CEREALS AS A CASE STUDY

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WORKPLACE INCIVILITY USING GRAND CEREALS AS A CASE STUDY

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

In the last two decades, workplace negativity has emerged as a focal topic in the organization behavior literature. Thousands of studies have investigated how various types of negative workplace behaviors influence organization- level, group-level, and individual-level outcomes. Originally, the literature mainly focused on topics such as work- place aggression, deviance, Incivility, and abusive supervision and predominately investigated the detrimental effects of negative workplace behaviors on targets’ work attitudes, work behaviors, and well-being. This research has shown that targets of these negative workplace behaviors engage less in organizational citizenship behaviors (Diamantidis, Chatzoglou, 2019), have higher turnover intentions, and experience more stress than their colleagues. A relatively new addition to the domain of negative workplace behavior is workplace incivility, defined as low-intensity deviant workplace behavior with an ambiguous intent to harm. Examples of uncivil behavior include talking down to others, making demeaning remarks, and not listening to somebody (Diamantidis, Chatzoglou, 2019).

Important definitional elements of workplace incivility that help to differentiate it from other negative interper- sonal workplace behavioral constructs are its low intensity (aggression, violence, and Incivility are more severe) and its ambiguous (rather than overt or clearly diagnosable) intent to harm. The seemingly related constructs of aggression, Incivility, and abusive supervision are more overt, and therefore, targets of these behaviors more easily interpret them as purposely intended. The intentionality of incivility is more difficult to discern. A third characteristic that helps to differentiate incivility from negative leadership constructs such as abusive supervision is the specific source of the negative conduct. Incivility may be enacted not only by individuals in managerial jobs or supervisory roles but also by coworkers or customers. These distinctions are important, not only because incivility carves out a specific space in the domain of negative workplace behavior, but primarily because these characteristics likely cause different cognitions, emotions, and behaviors in the targets of incivility when compared with recipients of other negative workplace conduct. Moreover, it is also likely that the antecedents of incivility differ from those that incite more severe and/or intentional negative workplace behaviors (Cortina, 2018).

Workplace incivility is ubiquitous. It has been estimated that 98 percent of workers experience incivility, with 50 percent experiencing such conduct at least weekly. The monetary cost of experiencing incivility is estimated at $14,000 per employee annually, due to project delays and cognitive distraction from work. These statistics are alarming as they indicate that incivility affects many employees and has a large financial impact on the organizations they work for. Moreover, the human costs borne by employees who are subjected to workplace incivility are quite severe. They may, for instance worry, try to avoid the instigator, withdraw from work, and even take their frustrations out on customers (Jawahar, Schreurs, 2018).

The alarming rate and costs of workplace incivility stimulated universities to develop and execute civility campaigns (e.g., Oregon State University, Central Florida University, State University of New York, and Loyola University), led to the startup of a grassroots movement that advocates civility in government, and motivated a variety of organizations to emphasize civility in their organizations (e.g., Character Counts in Iowa, the Community Foundation of Greater Des Moines, and the Interfaith Alliance of Iowa). In fact, the public domain recognized the importance of civility as early as 1922 when the Fifth Avenue Bus Company in New York City requested (inspirational) essays about public civility for an award of up to $150. However, even though the importance of civility has been acknowledged a long time ago, workplace incivility currently is a pervasive and costly behavior that only quite recently has become the topic of empirical research, hence the need for this study.

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Incivility has been associated with many negative occupational, psychological, and organizational outcomes, as well as issues with physical health (Sears & Humiston, 2015). Regulating emotion is associated with stress, emotional exhaustion and negative physical symptoms that can dampen job satisfaction (Welbourne Gangadharan, & Esparza, 2016).

So far, research on the antecedents and broad consequences of workplace incivility as a whole has not been inte- grated in a narrative review. One study that integrated some of the work on workplace incivility is Hershcovis’s (2011) paper cited in Smidt, De Beer, Brink, Leiter, (2016) that examines how various forms of workplace misbehavior relate to target outcomes. She analyzed studies on experienced workplace incivility that used the Workplace Incivility Scale and included job satisfaction, turnover intent, and/or well-being as dependent variables. While the integrative model that Hershcovis (2011) in Smidt, De Beer, Brink, Leiter, (2016) proposes is very helpful in synthesizing a broad extant body of work on the effects of various forms of experienced workplace misbehavior, our narrative review aims to review all empirical research on workplace incivility that has been conducted beginning in 1999 and including work through the year 2013. It includes all types of workplace incivility workers may encounter, incorporates studies utilizing a broad range of methodologies and measurement instruments, and employs a wide variety of antecedents, processes, and outcomes of workplace incivility.

According to in Smidt, De Beer, Brink, Leiter, (2016) despite the progress that has been made, the literature is moving forward without a strong theoretical foundation that guides this progress. Without a strong theoretical direction, the work on incivility has not progressed cohesively. Instead, the materialized work on incivility is quite fragmented. The broad and diverse extant body of work on incivility makes it difficult for scholars and practitioners alike to integrate and understand the findings on this negative workplace behavior. With- out a clear understanding of the extant work, some potential incivility scholars may be dissuaded to conduct research in this confusing domain, and practitioners may not be able to incorporate the accumulated knowledge in their organizational practices thus this study seeks to investigate workplace incivility using grand cereals as a case study.

1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS

The following research questions which are in line with the objectives of this study will be answered:

To what extent is workplace incivility in grand cereals?

What are the causes of workplace incivility in grand cereals?

What are the effects of workplace incivility in grand cereals?

What are the solutions to workplace incivility in grand cereals?

1.4 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The primary purpose of this research is to investigate workplace incivility using grand cereals as a case study. Specific purposes of this study are:

To determine the extent of workplace incivility in grand cereals.

To find out the causes of workplace incivility in grand cereals.

To investigate the effects of workplace incivility in grand cereals.

To proffer solutions to workplace incivility in grand cereals.

1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES

To determine the effectiveness of this study, the following research null hypotheses will be formulated to guide the study and it will be tested at 0.05% levels of significance.:

H01: The extent of workplace incivility in grand cereals is low.

1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

This study will be crucial since workplace Incivility is very rampant and costs employers money as well as employees' health and, in many cases, their jobs. Incivility in the workplace has both direct and indirect consequences to the organization or school. Employee absence, higher turnover, increased legal bills, and increased security expenses are easy to recognize as direct costs.

This study also aims to create a new framework for future research on workplace incivility and employee performance. The study's findings can also be used by top management and HRM managers and practitioners to plan and assure suitable employee positioning in order to strengthen workplace relationships.

1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY

This study broadly focuses on workplace incivility using grand cereals as a case study. Specifically, this study focuses on determining the extent of workplace incivility in grand cereals and finding out the causes of workplace incivility in grand cereals.

In addition, this study also specifically focuses on investigating the effects of workplace incivility in grand cereals and proffering solutions to workplace incivility in grand cereals.

Selected staff of grand cereals will serve as the enrolled particpants for the survey of this study.

1.8 OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS

Workplace: a place where people work, such as an office or factory.

Incivility: rude or unsociable speech or behaviour.

Workplace incivility: Workplace incivility has been defined as low-intensity deviant behavior with ambiguous intent to harm the target. Uncivil behaviors are characteristically rude and discourteous, displaying a lack of regard for others.


This material content is developed to serve as a GUIDE for students to conduct academic research



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