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1.1 Background of the Study

In today's global economy, where information is increasingly important, intellectual capital provides organizations with a competitive advantage. Hence, managers in various sectors are prioritizing the retention of top talents and minimizing employee turnover. The decision of an individual to quit an organization is greatly influenced by the work environment in which the person is involved (Mitchell and Lee, 2021). Therefore, job embeddedness plays a crucial role in assessing employees' intention to leave their job. Job embeddedness refers to the convergence of social, psychological, and economical factors that motivate an employee to remain in and persist with a specific employment. Job embeddedness seeks to encompass the multiple connections that employees has with their organization or community. Beyond that, job embeddedness theory comprises three dimensions: fit, link, and sacrifice. Fit is the subjective assessment of how comfortable and compatible a person feels with their surroundings, society, or organization (Mitchell et al., 2021). According to Zhang (2023), individuals who have a better fit with an organization have a higher level of job embeddedness compared to those who do not fit well with the organization. Links pertain to the established and casual associations an individual has with the local community and the organization they work for (Mitchell et al., 2021; Zhang, 2023). Increasing the number of connections with an organization leads to a greater level of job embeddedness. Lastly, sacrifice is the perceived cost of material or potential opportunity loss that occurs when a person leaves an organization (Mitchell et al., 2021). However, research studies exploring job embeddedness theory have been undertaken across various industries, including as healthcare, retail, banking, and sports. These studies have been conducted in multiple countries, such as China, Pakistan, India, and the United Kingdom, to assess whether job embeddedness can accurately predict employee retention. Additionally, researchers have examined whether the theory of job embeddedness can be applied to employees in different countries (Mitchell et al., 2021; Holtom & O’Neill, 2019; Ramesh & Gelfand, 2020). 

Similarly, research indicates that organizations benefit from employees who are highly embedded in their jobs. This is because employees who are deeply committed to their work are more likely to stay in their positions and engage in discretionary behaviours, such as innovative work behaviours and organization citizenship behaviours. Considering the expenses linked to staff turnover and the challenge of maintaining crucial personnel in modern businesses. Job embeddedness is statistically significant and negatively associated with turnover. The study by Chan et al. (2019) found job embeddedness determined proactive care service and enhanced the greater performance of health workers. However, literature and research articles on job embeddedness in Cameroon have not come to any clear conclusion and are limited in number. In order to obtain theoretical accuracy and precision, therefore, a survey will be conducted in order to assess the influence of job embeddedness on employee turnover in  Cameroonian health sector.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

Job embeddedness, according to Peteraf (2023) also contribute to a competitive advantage for organizations. Cameroonaian employers, like any other employers, are displeased when key personnel resign from their positions. This can impede their businesses from attaining a competitive edge (Acquaah, 2021; Amediku, 2018). Contemporary organizations face a significant challenge in retaining key employees due to their unique attributes such as specialised skills, tacit knowledge, and high employability, which make them rare and valuable in the job market. Consequently, it is difficult for organizations to prevent them from leaving. Furthermore, one significant challenge faced by many organizations is the high turnover rate of employee, which leads to both direct costs (such as recruitment and selection fees) and indirect costs (such as decreased morale among existing employees and loss of expertise and knowledge). These costs can have a significant impact on the organization's success and should not be underestimated (Dess & Shaw, 2021). Additionally, increased turnover rates may lead to decreased motivation and increased stress for the remaining employees, since they will have to take on additional responsibilities (Hendrie, 2018; Waldman et al., 2020). Inexperienced personnel may lack the necessary abilities to effectively meet patient expectations, resulting in discontent. Additionally, patient who were used to the former employee may choose to only want care from them. However, extensive research has been conducted to comprehend the issue of excessive staff turnover (Mitchell et al., 2021). However, identifying the underlying reason for high turnover rates remains a difficult task for both businesses and scholars. Furthermore, organizations are conducting studies to examine the factors that lead to turnover and employee retention due to the significant rates of turnover and manpower shortages. Prior research has mostly concentrated on an attitude-driven process and its constituent elements. The characteristics that are most commonly examined in research include employee satisfaction and organisational commitment (Borah & Malakar, 2018). Nevertheless, Mitchell et al. (2021) proposed the work embeddedness hypothesis, which examined the elements that impacted employee retention from a distinct perspective compared to turnover research. Rather than inquiring about the reasons behind employee resignations, the idea focuses on understanding the factors that discourage employees from quitting. It explores the "constraining forces" or "spider web" that act as barriers to employee turnover. It is in the light of these that the study seeks to  assess the influence of job embeddedness on employee turnover in  Cameroonian health sector.

1.3 Objectives of the Study

The main purpose of this study is to  assess the influence of job embeddedness on employee turnover in  Cameroonian health sector. Specifically, the study will;

Find out the effect of job embeddedness on employee turnover in Cameroonian health sector.

Find out the impact of turnover on healthcare service delivery and patient outcomes in the Cameroonian health sector.

Find out whether there is a relationship between job embeddedness and employee turnover in  Cameroonian health sector. 

1.4 Research Questions

The following questions have been prepared for the study:

What is the prevalence of authoritarian leadership styles in private organizations?

What are the levels of employee turnover intentions in private organizations?

How does authoritarian leadership style impact employee turnover intention in private organizations?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

Ho: There is no significant relationship between job embeddedness and employee turnover in the Cameroonian health sector.

Ha: Job embeddedness significantly influences employee turnover in the Cameroonian health sector.

1.6 Significance of the Study

The results of the study will enable administrators and managers implement strategies to enhance job embeddedness, such as fostering a supportive work environment, providing opportunities for professional development, and promoting a sense of belonging and connection to the community. This, in turn, will help reduce turnover rates, improve employee retention, and ensure continuity of care for patients. Additionally, the study findings will empower healthcare professionals to take proactive steps to strengthen their ties to their jobs and communities, thereby increasing their job satisfaction and likelihood of remaining in their current positions. Moreover, policy makers and government officials will utilize the findings to shape policies and initiatives that enhance working conditions, provide incentives for healthcare professionals to stay in their jobs, and bolster the overall resilience of the healthcare workforce in Cameroon. Furthermore, subsequent researchers will use it as a literature review. This means that other students who may decide to conduct studies in this area will have the opportunity to use this study as available literature that can be subjected to critical review. Invariably, the result of the study contributes immensely to the body of academic knowledge with regard to the influence of job embeddedness on employee turnover in  Cameroonian health sector.

1.6 Scope of the study

The scope of this study is boarded on the influence of job embeddedness on employee turnover in  Cameroonian health sector. Empirically, this study will find out the effect of job embeddedness on employee turnover,  the impact of turnover on healthcare service delivery and patient outcomes and find out whether there is a relationship between job embeddedness and employee turnover. 

Geographically, the study will be delimited to employees in health sector, Cameroon.

1.7 Limitation of the study

In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, language barriers, and the attitude of the respondents. In addition, there was the element of researcher bias. Here, the researcher possessed some biases that may have been reflected in the way the data was collected, the type of people interviewed or sampled, and how the data gathered was interpreted thereafter. The potential for all this to influence the findings and conclusions could not be downplayed. 

More so, the findings of this study are limited to the sample population in the study area, hence they may not be suitable for use in comparison to other schools, local governments, states, and other countries in the world.

1.9 Definition of Terms

Job embeddedness: refers to the degree to which employees feel connected to and integrated within their job, organization, and community.

Links: The connections and relationships employees have with coworkers, supervisors, and other members of the organization.

Fit: The degree to which employees' values, goals, and experiences align with the job and organizational culture.

Sacrifice: The perceived costs associated with leaving the job, including loss of relationships, financial investment, and opportunities for advancement.

Employee turnover: the rate at which employees leave an organization and need to be replaced. 

This material content is developed to serve as a GUIDE for students to conduct academic research

Delivery: Within 24 hours

  • Reference(s):

    Yes available

  • Methodology: Yes available

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