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THE EFFECTS OF WORKPLACE BULLYING ON EMPLOYEES JOB SATISFACTION IN PRESBOOK PLC, CAMEROON

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THE EFFECTS OF WORKPLACE BULLYING ON EMPLOYEES JOB SATISFACTION IN PRESBOOK PLC, CAMEROON

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Study

Bullying at work compromises workers' productivity and well-being by fostering a toxic environment that can result in psychological anguish and a decline in job satisfaction.However, workplace bullying is a societal problem that has detrimental consequences for both the individuals being targeted and the organizations they belong to (Agotnes et al., 2018). In their study, Berger et al. (2018) found that "status characteristics organize social interaction" and observed that individuals tend to make diverse evaluations based on different statuses. Based on the expectation states theory (EST) proposed by Berger et al. (2018), there are two primary perspectives, namely the evaluation-expectation perspective and the status characteristics perspective, that can be valuable in comprehending the impact of employee voice on others' perceptions of social status within an organization.Workplace bullying encompasses persistent, malicious, and intense pressure, insults, violence, derogatory opinions, inappropriate guidance, power imbalances, dissatisfaction, frustration, intentional or unintentional behaviours that demean and exclude coworkers, ultimately leading them to resign from their job (Parzefall & Salin, 2020; Salin, 2021). According to Samnani and Singh (2019), employees that participate in bullying behaviour are motivated by three factors: anger, personal dislike, and selfish gain. Anger can be described as a "interpersonal emotion" that is directed towards others. When an employee dislikes a coworker, it can lead to bullying behaviour. Supervisors may also engage in bullying behaviour towards employees in order to achieve selfish gains, such as increasing performance, through alarming and pressuring actions (Hakanen, Peeters & Schaufeli, 2018). Einarsen et al. (2016) acknowledged that bullying does not solely affect individual stress and health, but also has an impact on the entire organization, including its productivity, performance, and increased absenteeism rate. According to Hoel and Vartia (2021), workplace bullying has several negative effects on employee performance, efficiency, and productivity. These effects include decreased performance, absenteeism, reduced inventiveness, physical illnesses, diminished interest in work tasks and duties. According to the research conducted by Nwobia and Aljohani (2017), workplace bullying results in high levels of stress and creates an environment of mistreatment, public humiliation, spreading rumours, gossiping, and social exclusion. These factors, in turn, contribute to employees leaving their jobs (Chen, Quine & Mathesien, 2003; Hakanen, Peeters & Schaufeli, 2018). In a study conducted by Paais (2018), the author examined the correlation between work stress and bullying experienced by employees. The findings suggest that bullying has detrimental effects on employee performance, resulting in financial and productivity losses for the firm and perhaps leading to the closure of organisations. The references cited include the works of Buchanan & McCalman (2018), Huang et al. (2018), Huang & Lin (2019), Mone & London (2018), Tsai (2018), and Weber, Sadri, & Gentry (2018). On the other hand, Laschinger and Fida (2019) investigated the correlation between negative workplace behaviour and strained relationships between employees and managers. In addition, bullying has a detrimental impact on the organization by impeding innovation and creativity (Laschinger, Finegan, & Wilk, 2019). In a similar vein, employees who were subjected to frequent bullying consistently reported a higher prevalence of mental health symptoms in comparison to colleagues who were not bullied. Individuals who experience bullying often exhibit diminished self-assurance and experience significant levels of stress (including posttraumatic stress and hypertension), leading them to rely more frequently on sleep aids and other medications. Salin (2018) described bullying as the occurrence of bad behaviours on a monthly basis, while Mikkelsen and Einarsen (2021) stated that individuals can be considered victims of bullying only if they experience negative behaviours on a weekly basis. Essentially, those who experience bad behaviour consistently over a long period of time, such as during their working life or continuously within the past 12 months, but with a lesser frequency, such as on a monthly basis, are regarded to be more severely affected by bullying (Probst, Jiang, & Benson, 2018). Therefore, a survey will be conducted in order to examine the effects of workplace bullying on employees job satisfaction in PRESBOOK PLC, Cameroon.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

Workplace bullying has become a prominent research issue in recent years, with a focus on analysing the impact of bullying on employees and their job satisfaction (Kadilak, 2018). Kitt (2019) highlighted that this phenomena gained significant attention, leading to increased awareness of its frequency and detrimental implications. In addition, Hollis (2018) stated that the cost borne by an organization in the presence of bullying is a decrease in production and compromised organisational objectives. Workplace bullying has several detrimental consequences on employees, with employee satisfaction being one of the most significant areas affected. Employee satisfaction which enhances  productivity is crucial for ensuring organisational efficiency (Devonish, 2023). According to Rayner (2020), the research conducted by Nielsen and Einarsen in 2018, workplace bullying, has been found to be associated with a rise in suicidal ideation. Given the alarming recent discoveries, workplace bullying has become an increasingly urgent concern that is escalating quietly due to insufficient assistance from organisations and the fear of retaliation (Friedman et al., 2018). Similarly, according to researchers, managers are identified as the primary perpetrators of bullying, specifically through the misuse of authority and by creating a connection between top-down bullying and organisational structures (Roscigno et al., 2019). Branch et al. (2018) conducted a study that found that the power and dependency approach is a crucial aspect that allows subordinates to engage in bullying behaviour. Also, Rousseau (2019) identified that the working environment is the main factor that leads to bullying, rather than individual differences. Bullying is widely acknowledged as a significant problem in various domains, such as trade unions, human resources (HR) departments, and professional organisations (Cowie et al., 2022). Islam, Ahmed, and Ali (2019) and Malik, Sattar, Younas, and Nawaz (2019) have stated that organisations must establish a congenial environment, ethical leadership, a balanced mix of qualitative and quantitative work environment, and an impartial internal complaint department in order to prevent emotional weariness. Likewise, Laschinger, Wong, and Grau (2022) identified that receiving support and attention from one's employer, working in a trustworthy workplace, and having sufficient support are factors that promote employee efficiency (Branch et al., 2019). Nevertheless, according to Sheehan, McCabe & Garavan (2018), engaging in anti-bullying actions such as providing specialised training to managers and implementing good HR policies can help buffer the relationship between bullying and employees' job satisfaction.Thus, it is in the light of this, the study seeks to examine the effects of workplace bullying on employees job satisfaction in PRESBOOK PLC, Cameroon.

1.3  Objectives of the Study

The main purpose of this study is to examine the effects of workplace bullying on employees job satisfaction in PRESBOOK PLC, Cameroon.

Specifically, the study will;

Investigate the factors influencing workplace bullying among employees in PRESBOOK PLC, Cameroon.

Investigate the levels of job satisfaction among employees at PRESBOOK PLC, Cameroon.

Investigate the effects of workplace bullying on employees job satisfaction in PRESBOOK PLC, Cameroon.

1.4 Research Questions 

The following questions have been prepared for the study:

What are the factors influencing workplace bullying among employees in PRESBOOK PLC, Cameroon?

What are the levels of job satisfaction among employees at PRESBOOK PLC, Cameroon?

How do workplace bullying affect employees' job satisfaction in PRESBOOK PLC, Cameroon?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

H0: There is no significant relationship between workplace bullying and employees job satisfaction.

Ha: There is a significant relationship between workplace bullying and employees job satisfaction.

1.6 Significance of the Study

Bullying has a substantial effect on the culture of an organization, resulting in diminished morale, distrust, and reduced collaboration among employees. However, studying the impact of bullying on job satisfaction will provide insights into the wider cultural consequences in the company and help direct initiatives aimed at cultivating a favourable and inclusive work environment.

Furthermore, subsequent researchers will use it as a literature review. This means that other students who may decide to conduct studies in this area will have the opportunity to use this study as available literature that can be subjected to critical review. Invariably, the result of the study contributes immensely to the body of academic knowledge with regards to the effects of workplace bullying on employees job satisfaction in PRESBOOK PLC, Cameroon.

1.7 Scope of the study

The scope of this study is boarded on the effects of workplace bullying on employees job satisfaction in PRESBOOK PLC, Cameroon. Empirically, this study will investigate the factors influencing workplace bullying among employees, investigate the levels of job satisfaction among employees and the effects of workplace bullying on employees job satisfaction in PRESBOOK PLC, Cameroon.

Geographically, the study will be delimited to employees of PRESBOOK PLC, Cameroon.

1.8 Limitation of the study

In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, language barriers, and the attitude of the respondents.In addition, there was the element of researcher bias. Here, the researcher possessed some biases that may have been reflected in the way the data was collected, the type of people interviewed or sampled, and how the data gathered was interpreted thereafter. The potential for all this to influence the findings and conclusions could not be downplayed. 

More so, the findings of this study are limited to the sample population in the study area, hence they may not be suitable for use in comparison to other schools, local governments, states, and other countries in the world.

1.9 Definition of Terms

Workplace bullying: refers to the persistent mistreatment or harassment of an individual or group within a work environment. 

Employees: are people who are employed by a company to carry out particular duties or responsibilities in exchange for pay

Job satisfaction: the degree of fulfilment or contentment a person feels in their professional function.


This material content is developed to serve as a GUIDE for students to conduct academic research



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  • Reference(s):

    Yes available

  • Methodology: Yes available


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