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APPROACH TO SCHOOL BASED STAFF DEVELOPMENT BY SCHOOL PRINCIPALS

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APPROACH TO SCHOOL BASED STAFF DEVELOPMENT BY SCHOOL PRINCIPALS

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background Of The Study

The Principal has key tasks to perform in realizing the objectives of secondary education. Apart from creating a comfortable teaching and learning atmosphere in the school, he is to provide effective training and development strategies and enhance job performance among the teachers. With the growing pressure on schools and principals to improve student learning outcomes as a result of accountability policies in many countries, the idea of principals supporting teacher learning has received substantial attention from the scholars in the field of Educational Management and Leadership (EDLM) (Liu, Hallinger & Feng, 2016). Principals have been overwhelmingly expected to improve teaching and learning activities in their schools. They are now required to create and support a school environment in which teachers enhance their knowledge and practices in order to ensure the learning of all students (Duffield, Wageman, & Hodge, 2013).

Teacher professional development involves all learning opportunities that enable teachers to adapt to changes in the education system and increase their effectiveness (Smith & Gillespie, 2007). In this age when the success of the education system was evaluated with the success of the students, it was determined that the teachers had a significant effect on the success of the students (Buchanan, 2012; Rushton, Morgan & Richard, 2007; Scheerens, 2010). The research showed that teacher professional development indirectly increases student achievement by increasing teachers' effectiveness (Duffield et al.,2013). While teachers themselves are responsible for their professional development, school principals are the leaders who provide opportunities to support teachers' professional development.

There has been an increasing interest in the idea of school leaders promoting teacher professional development in Nigeria as well. Previous research indicated that school principals did not fulfill these duties adequately (Bozkuş, 2016; Çalık & Şehitoğlu, 2006). It is stated that there are many problems in the pre-service training provided for the training of teachers (Aypay, 2009). Therefore, teachers in Nigeria, subject areas, in pedagogy, it is determined that they have deficiencies in professional satisfaction and appreciation of the visual field (Uçar, 2011). However, it is stated that teachers do not attempt to improve themselves professionally (Abazaoğlu, Yıldırım, & Yıldızhan, 2014). School administrators also state that teachers do not care about professional development (Turan, Yıldırım, & Aydoğdu, 2012). Although encouraging teachers to be trained in their professions is considered among the duties of school administrators (Gündüz & Balyer, 2013), teachers do not find the level of administrators to fulfill their professional development tasks (Bakioğlu & İnandı, 2001). Therefore, Nigeria has recently been undergoing an intense educational reform movement that attaches considerable value to the workplace teacher professional learning. The country’s 2023 vision that guides the reform movement emphasizes that school principals create and organize professional learning activities based on the needs of students and teachers. While the debate regarding the reform and its potential outcomes is considerable, it is important to make a better sense of current practices of principals in supporting teacher professional learning and associated problems in order to provide recommendations that guide the implementation of reforms. The purpose of this study is, therefore, to determine how and to what extent principals provide support for teacher learning in Nigeria schools depending on teachers’ perceptions.

1.2 Statement Of The Problem

 What does it mean to be a teacher, First, according to Cox (2019), teachers must be adaptive; they should be able to evolve their teaching style with the everchanging world, adapt to the internet changes brought about by technology, and incorporate them into their teaching. Secondly, they should be able to collaborate and work in a team with other teachers to grow professionally. Thirdly, teachers should be able to think critically and be forward thinkers that prepare learners for future opportunities. Lastly, Cox (2019) continues to state that teachers should be advocates for their profession and the education of learners. This study argues that teachers are required to possess different skills and competencies. Likewise, school principals, need to be aware and equip themselves with the relevant skills in order to guide teachers towards relevant teacher professional development education towards the improvement of student learning and teaching approaches.

Teachers rely on the guidance of the school principals to pave the way for them in curriculum development and intergrading technology in teaching and learning; as a result, well-developed principals with skills are needed to equip the teachers with the necessary skills. Moreover, with the outbreak of covid-19, public schools struggled with introducing online learning in schools; therefore, what role do the school principals play in assisting teachers in preparing for the relevant skills to enable their teaching during the covid-19 pandemic through blended learning? However, the majority of school principals feel that they are not professionally advancing with the knowledge of technology or digital skills (Fisher & Waller, 2013). Therefore, this might be one of the reasons why there is less published literature on the role of the school principal in the professional development of teachers because the principals are also not professionally developed with digital skills. As suggested by Raman et al. (2019). Further research on the professional development of principals is recommended. Despite the studies that have shown the quality of principals and their role, research on technology leadership is underrepresented in the existing literature (Fisher & Waller, 2013). As a result, the research seeks to determine the role of school principals in aiding teachers with the most recent technological advances, as well as how school principals contribute to the process of teacher professional development.

1.3 Objectives Of The Study

The Main Objective of the study is to assess approach of school based staff development by school principals using some selected secondary schools in Eleme Local Government Area, Rivers State. The specific objectives include:

Determine the extent school based staff development scheme are effectively by secondary school principals in Eleme Local Government Area,Rivers State.  

Identify the school based staff development adopted by school principals in secondary schools.

Find out the barriers affecting effective implementation of school based staff development by school principals in Eleme Local Government Area, Rivers State.

1.4 Research Questions

The study will be guided by the following questions;

What is the extent school based staff development scheme are effectively by secondary school principals in Eleme Local Government Area,Rivers State?

What are the school based staff development adopted by school principals in secondary schools?

What are the barriers affecting effective implementation of school based staff development by school principals in Eleme Local Government Area, Rivers State?

1.5 Statement of the Hypothesis

Ho: School based staff development schemes are not effectively implemented by secondary school principals in Eleme Local Government Area,Rivers State.

Ha: School based staff development schemes are effectively implemented by secondary school principals in Eleme Local Government Area,Rivers State.

1.6 Significance of the Study

This study will contribute significantly to understanding the pivotal role of school principals in facilitating the professional development of teachers. By investigating the various strategies, approaches, and initiatives employed by principals to support teacher growth, the study will shed light on the mechanisms through which effective leadership can positively impact teaching quality and student outcomes. Understanding how school principals aid in teachers' development is crucial for educational policymakers, administrators, and practitioners seeking to enhance the overall effectiveness of schools and improve student achievement.

The findings of this study will provide valuable insights into the specific roles and responsibilities of school principals in fostering a culture of continuous learning and improvement among teachers. By identifying the leadership practices and behaviors that promote teacher development, the study will offer practical recommendations for principals to cultivate supportive, collaborative, and empowering environments that enable teachers to thrive personally and professionally. These insights will be particularly relevant for principals seeking to enhance their leadership effectiveness and maximize the potential of their teaching staff.

1.7 Scope Of Study

This study is structured to focus on approach to school based staff development by school principals.  The study will be conducted in selected secondary schools in  Eleme Local Government Area In Rivers State.

1.7 Limitation of the Study

Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).

Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.

1.9 Definition of Terms

Principal: Refers an individual who is in the position of leadership in a single secondary school.

School-Based Staff Development: This is a systematic process implemented within educational institutions, focusing on enhancing the knowledge, skills, and competencies of school staff members, including teachers and administrative staff, to improve teaching and learning outcomes.


This material content is developed to serve as a GUIDE for students to conduct academic research



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