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AN EXAMINATION OF THE IMPACT OF ISRAELI PALESTINIAN CRISIS ON ITS RELATIONS WITH THE MIDDLE EAST

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AN EXAMINATION OF THE IMPACT OF ISRAELI PALESTINIAN CRISIS ON ITS RELATIONS WITH THE MIDDLE EAST


CHAPTER ONE:

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the study

The confrontation between Arabs and Israelis is already in its eighth decade. During the late years of Ottoman rule, tensions between Palestine's relatively tiny Jewish population and the country's considerably larger Arab population first began to boil over. After the First World War, the publication of the Balfour Declaration in 1917 (in which the British government supported the "establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people"), and the establishment in 1920 of a British Mandate over Palestine on both sides of the Jordan River, it became more ferocious and significant. Additionally, the Balfour Declaration stated that the British government supported the "establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people." Arabs and Jews struggled for rights and control during the following three decades, and their conflict culminated in a war that broke out when the United Nations decided in 1947 to divide Palestine into a Jewish state and a Palestinian-Arab one. This war was fought for the territory that is now known as Palestine. Throughout the decades of low-level struggle, the indigenous Palestinian Arabs had the backing and assistance of a significant portion of the Arab world. However, the conflict escalated with the founding of the state of Israel in 1948 and the subsequent invasion by five Arab armies. The Arabs' military defeat, the failure to establish the Palestinian Arab state envisioned by the UN resolution, and the consequent problem of Palestinian refugees were the fundamental facts in the process that transformed the Arab-Jewish conflict in Mandate Palestine into the Arab-Israeli conflict we still know today. Israel's victory, the consolidation of its existence and expansion of its original territory, the Arabs' military defeat, and the failure to establish the Palestinian Arab state envisioned by the UN resolution were the fundamental facts.[Rane, 2009] asserts that the conflict between Israel and Palestine is a significant concern on a global scale, particularly in the context of the interactions between the Western world and the Islamic world. It also continues to be a strategic problem and a prolonged conflict, both of which undermine peace, security, and political stability in the contemporary history of the Middle East [Baranovich & Moorthy, 2020; Okechukwu, 2018]. This seems to have been the case since the end of World conflict II [Baranovich & Moorthy, 2020]. In particular, the success of the Arab unification effort, as well as the maintenance of political stability within the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC). This battle, which has been going on since 1948, is seen as a watershed moment in the political history of the Arab governments that are members of the GCC and their relationship with Israel. In point of fact, after several years of war and failed peace efforts since the United Nations General Assembly resolution 181 in 1947 [Amina, 2019], the Zionist Jews appear to have methodically dominated the Arab – enshrined in their age long nationalistic ambition resulting in the ethnic cleansing of the Palestinian [Pappé 2019]. In recent years, however, the realisation of the Palestinian people's decades-long national goal of establishing an independent "State" has emerged as a top priority for the Palestinian people. To the Israelis, the survival of their state despite the continual opposition from their Arab neighbours is an aspiration for the status of a regional leader, which ties into the equation of self-determination and state security between both actors [Frimer, Maoz, & Ron, 2020]. Despite the strengthening of ties between Israel and the GCC, it would seem that the Israeli occupation and settlement of Palestinian territory since the 1967 war is still a contentious issue that has not been resolved. According to Rabi and Mueller (2017), the GCC, which has been politically unable to assist the Palestinian cause and which yet continues to prolong its normalisation with Israel, has taken these steps. This unstable political dynamic has produced a vacuum within the GCC as a result of the fact that although some governments desire to retain good relations with Israel, others do not on the condition that a consensus be reached regarding the Arab peace effort, which is firmly tied to the struggle of the Palestinians. The announcement that the United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, and Sudan would establish full diplomatic relations with Israel, which was mediated by the United States, came as quite a surprise and stands as a fresh event that draws various disputes that are ingrained in the political dynamics of the GCC. More so when it was revealed by the Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu that Israel will further acquire approximately 30 percent more territory in the West Bank that is now under Israeli occupation [Eldar, 2020]. This is, without a doubt, a matter of grave worry for the Palestinian people and a setback for the Arab peace movement. In 2017, on the occasion of the centennial of the Balfour declaration, Washington announced Jerusalem to be the capital of Israel. Subsequently, Washington proclaimed Jerusalem to be the undivided capital of Israel [Selzer, 2020]. Sadly, this event occurred not too long ago. Announcing that the Israeli occupation of Palestinian territory is no longer in violation of international law, which sparked a debate among international communities and was followed by a pronouncement by the Secretary of State of the United States, Mike Pompeo, that the occupation of Palestinian territory by Israel is no longer illegal under international law. [Aljazeera, 2020] claims that Israel has the right to decide for itself where in ancient Palestine its territory should be located. despite the fact that such a move by Israel is claimed to openly violate international law according to state territorial sovereignty. In spite of this, the position was criticised by Antonio Gutierrez, the Secretary General of the United Nations, during a meeting with the United Nations Security Council. He was quoted as saying the following: "If implemented, annexation would constitute a most serious violation of international law, grievously harm the prospect of a two-state solution, and undercut the possibilities of a renewal of negotiations,..." However, this position was criticised by Antonio Gutierrez, the Secretary General of the United Nations. "I call on the Israeli Government to abandon its annexation plans," (Nichols, January 20, 2020). This attitude does neither create a positive image for peace nor hope for the many years expected settlement that is being hailed as "the deal of the century" and was brokered by President Trump's son-in-law Jared Kushner [Balf, 2020]. In any case, the status quo will continue to prevail. On the other hand, when seen from a geopolitical perspective, the arena of Israel and Palestine and the arena of the Gulf are perceived as being distinct from one another. However, Gulf monarchs are indirectly engaged in and impacted by the Israeli–Palestinian conflict. This is the case regardless of how one looks at it. More than ever, Israel is also affected by the political dynamics in the Gulf, and the developments there as having an effect on its essential national security interest [Beck, 2020]. This necessitates the need to build a security alliance with the Saudi-led government. Israel is influenced more than ever by the political dynamics in the Gulf, and the developments there as having an impact on its vital national security interest. The Arab Gulf governments of Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Qatar, Oman, Bahrain, and the United Arab Emirates consider the Israeli–Palestinian conflict as destabilising from both a political and an ideological position, despite the fact that they believe the most significant danger to their national security to come from another regional power, Iran. Therefore, the researcher sought to examine the impact of israeli palestinian crisis on its relations with the middle east.

1.2 Statement of the problem

The Arab Gulf nations, including Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Qatar, Oman, Bahrain, and the United Arab Emirates, regard the Israeli-Palestinian issue as a source of destabilisation from both political and ideological perspectives. However, it is worth noting that these governments primarily consider Iran, another regional leader, as their greatest security concern [Eldar, 2020]. Based on the aforementioned equation, the implicit alliance between Israel and the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) nations would experience fluctuations in response to the ongoing regional conflict between Israel and Palestine. According to Rabi and Mueller (2017), this aligns with the Gulf Arab governments' perspective on their own security and the need to maintain regional stability and safeguard against foreign threats. The Gulf nations' dynamic attitude to the conflict, seeing it as a regional affair, has the potential to result in long-term political instability. However, the Palestinian population perceives a sense of betrayal as a result of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) capitals' decision to establish diplomatic relations with Israel. As a consequence, this hurdle poses a hindrance to the achievement of her national aspirations. This research so investigates the ramifications of the recently established diplomatic partnership between the Gulf Cooperation Council (namely the United Arab Emirates and Bahrain) and Israel. Additionally, this research examines the political dynamics inside the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) pertaining to regional matters, such as the Israel-Palestine conflict. Hence,the need to examine the impact of israeli palestinian crisis on its relations with the middle east

1.3       Objective of the study

The broad objective of the study is to examine the impact of israeli palestinian crisis on its relations with the middle east. The specific objectives is as follows

i.                    Examine the factors responsible for the Israeli Palestinian crisis.

ii.                  Find out the impact of israeli palestinian crisis on its relations with the middle east.

iii.                Assess the challenges in resolving the Israeli Palestinian crisis.

1.4       Research Questions

The following questions have been prepared for the study

i.          What are the factors responsible for the Israeli Palestinian crisis?

ii.        What is the impact of israeli palestinian crisis on its relations with the middle east?

iii.      What are the challenges in resolving the Israeli Palestinian crisis?

1.5       Significance of the study

The findings of the study will be significant to the international community as it will expose them on the need to look into the root cause of the  Israeli and palestinians and proffer a long lasting solutions to the problem so as not to spread to the entire middle east.

The findings of the study will be ignificant to the academic community as it will contribute to the existing literature.

1.6       Scope of the study

The study focuses on the impact of israeli palestinian crisis on its relations with the middle east. Hence, the study will

1.7       Research Methodology

Research methodology deals with the different ways or methods the researcher applied in order to carry out the research as well as the instrument used for gathering the data. There are several research methodologies appropriate for answering the research questions. The type of research methodology used in this research to gather data and relevant information is the historical research and the study will adopt descriptive method of data collection. This will involve the collection of materials from secondary sources, such as books, journal articles, magazines, internet sources, international and national conference proceedings, published and unpublished articles.

1.8       Definition of terms

Crisis: a time of intense difficulty or danger.



This material content is developed to serve as a GUIDE for students to conduct academic research



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  • Methodology: available


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