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1.1 Background of the study

Revolutionary movements are collective endeavours aimed at achieving substantial political, social, or economic transformation, often by toppling established institutions or authorities. These movements may manifest in several ways and arise as a reaction to perceived injustices, inequities, or grievances within a society. Revolutionary movements have historically been essential in moulding countries and challenging existing power systems, ultimately resulting in societal transformation.

societal scientists face the difficulty of addressing societal transformation (Olagbaju & Opeoluwa, 2015). A commonly seen aspect of social reality is the widespread description and explanation of the development of human societies, as well as the changes in fundamental elements of human society from traditional to contemporary societies (Olagbeju 2015). Indeed, human societies have consistently undergone modifications in social values, norms, institutions, connections, and stratification due to both internal and external causes of social change. External forces refer to significant occurrences that have a widespread impact on a country or many countries, such as climate change. Internal forces refer to small-scale occurrences that result in internal structural re-arrangements, which have significant impacts on the social fabric of society, such as population change. The persistence of both internal and external influences ensures that sociologists and social-scientific theorists will always be interested in social change, regardless of the initial notion used to approach it (Pantelimon & Victor, 2015). It is an indisputable fact that in the present era, there is a proliferation of theories that vie for attention and recognition. These theories do not directly compete with each other, but rather coexist. However, due to limitations in the intellectual arena, only a few of these theoretical approaches can be effectively managed (Solaja et al, 2015). Nevertheless, a thorough analysis of the scholarly literature indicates that the field of sociological theory concerning social transformation remains the least robust (Zamako, 2019). This might be attributed to the absence of a comprehensive theory that serves as the foundation for comprehending the many aspects of societal transformation. This study examines the socio-cultural, political, and economic developments in Nigeria from 1960 to 2015, using a theoretical approach. The article also analysed the effects of societal transformation on the interpersonal connections and well-being of individuals in present-day Nigerian communities. An in-depth comprehension of social change in Nigeria is crucial due to the presence of persistent social issues caused by ongoing transformations in social structure, social connections, and social institutions. The sociological theories intended to provide guidance in resolving these challenges, both temporally and spatially, are feeble and thoughtlessly implemented (Otoghagua, 2017). Hence, conducting such a study holds great importance as it will uncover the merits and drawbacks of different change theories and their synergistic inclinations in constructing a strong theoretical framework to address the challenges faced by sustainable social, economic, political, and environmental development in Nigeria. Therefore, the study examine the history of revolutionary movements and social  change in Nigeria.

1.2 Statement of the problem

Revolutionary movements and social change in Nigeria, as well as in many other nations, encounter diverse obstacles that might impede their advancement. One of the main obstacles in Nigeria is the Nigerian government's track record of repressing dissent and opposition activities (Usman, 2015). Activists and revolutionary leaders often encounter apprehension, persecution, and coercion, which curtails their capacity to arrange and rally support. Nigeria has grappled with widespread corruption throughout several tiers of government. This corruption has eroded the efficacy of revolutionary movements and social change programmes by redirecting resources, cultivating scepticism, and prolonging inequity. Moreover, Nigeria is a heterogeneous nation including several ethnic and religious factions. The variations between these characteristics may sometimes be used by those in positions of authority to fragment opposition groups, therefore complicating the process of establishing a cohesive alliance for societal transformation (Eguavuon, 2019).  In addition, a significant number of Nigerians lack comprehensive knowledge about their entitlements and the prospective advantages of societal transformation. Inadequate civic education may hinder the development of revolutionary movements, since individuals may be reluctant to engage in actions that question the existing state of affairs. However, tackling these difficulties requires a deliberate and subtle strategy, emphasising the creation of widespread backing, promoting inclusiveness, and devising methods to manage the intricate social and political environment in Nigeria. Hence, the need to look into the history of revolutionary movements and social  change in Nigeria.

1.3       Objective of the study

The broad objective of the study is to examine the history of revolutionary movements and social  change in Nigeria. The specific objectives is as follows

i.          Examine the history of revolutionary movements in Nigeria

ii.        Assess the social change that occurred as a result of revolutionary movements in Nigeria

iii.      Find out the challenges of revolutionary movements and social change in Nigeria

1.4       Research Questions

The following questions have been prepared for the study

i.          What is the history of revolutionary movements in Nigeria?

ii.        What are the social change that occurred as a result of revolutionary movements in Nigeria?

iii.      What are the challenges of revolutionary movements and social change in Nigeria?

1.5       Significance of the study

The study will help social scientists, academicians, politicians and professional development planners to design better policy interventions and socio-political reforms. It would also help the Nigerian government, at all levels, to formulate policies that would enhance the efficacy of managing the internal and external forces of change in order to bring about desirable socioeconomic development for the populace in the contemporary world.

1.6       Scope of the study

The study focuses on the history of revolutionary movements and social  change in Nigeria. Hence, the study will examine the history of revolutionary movements in Nigeria, assess the social change that occurred as a result of revolutionary movements in Nigeria and find out the challenges of revolutionary movements and social change in Nigeria.

1.7       Research Methodology

Research methodology deals with the different ways or methods the researcher applied in order to carry out the research as well as the instrument used for gathering the data. There are several research methodologies appropriate for answering the research questions. The type of research methodology used in this research to gather data and relevant information is the historical research. This will involve the collection of materials from secondary sources, such as books, journal articles, magazines, internet sources, international and national conference proceedings, published and unpublished articles.

1.8       Definition of terms

Revolution: a forcible overthrow of a government or social order, in favour of a new system.

Social change: changes in human interactions and relationships that transform cultural and social institutions.

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