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1.1 Background of the study

The Israeli-Palestinian conflict is widely recognised as a longstanding and seemingly insoluble issue within the realm of contemporary global politics. In light of extensive and protracted contention spanning over a century, both before and succeeding the establishment of the state of Israel, several analysts have expressed a sense of hopelessness about the prospect of achieving a settlement. As seen by the other articles included in this book, several participants have resorted to previously disregarded techniques out of frustration. One particularly noteworthy proposition, as shown in this compilation, is the endorsement of a "single state, spanning from the Jordan River to the Mediterranean Sea." Various iterations of this proposal posit a shared governmental entity including Israel, the West Bank, and the Gaza Strip, as reported by The New Arab (2023). The potential existence of a confederation or other mechanisms to ensure the protection of diverse communities is being considered. However, a common thread throughout all the "one state" plans is the optimistic belief that consolidating all the parties involved into a single sovereign body will enhance the prospects of resolving the dispute. The present issue that ensued in the initial hours of October 7th, 2023, whereby Hamas launched projectiles against Israel. The escalation of tensions in East Jerusalem may be attributed to a series of interconnected episodes. These incidents, which had been simmering for a considerable period, eventually led to a militarization of the situation and further exacerbation. One trigger occurred near the entrance to Jerusalem's Old City, namely at the Damascus Gate, coinciding with the commencement of the Muslim holy month of Ramadan on April 13th. During this time, Israeli officials implemented a prohibition on East Jerusalem residents from gathering on the steps of the gate and proceeded to block the surrounding area. The Damascus Gate serves as a prominent social centre for several Palestinian citizens inside the Old City, facilitating various civic and cultural meetings and activities. The Palestinian youth saw the installation of metal barricades as an act of provocation, prompting them to initiate nightly demonstrations. It is important to note that these rallies were not associated with any specific political groupings or broader agendas. In a short span of time, those identifying as ultra-nationalist Jews proceeded to engage in a march inside the central region of Jerusalem, ultimately converging around Damascus Gate. During this demonstration, the participants vocalised a chant expressing hostility against Arabs, specifically uttering the phrase "death to Arabs" (Al Jazeera, 2023). The marches elicited significant resentment among Palestinians, which subsequently extended to the nearby West Bank and neighbouring Jordan. Additionally, terrorist factions in Gaza launched many missiles against Israel. Palestinians documented incidents of violence against Jews using video recordings, then sharing these recordings on various social media platforms with the intention of garnering empathy and backing. Simultaneously, ultra-nationalist Israeli Jews engaged in acts of aggression against Arabs inside the streets of Jerusalem. After a period of twelve days characterised by intense clashes in East Jerusalem, the Israeli forces proceeded to dismantle the barriers on the 25th of April. Subsequently, a second catalyst emerged in the shape of escalating public discontentment triggered by a deferred Israeli Supreme Court decision pertaining to the proposed displacement of four Palestinian households residing in Sheikh Jarrah, an East Jerusalem neighbourhood that serves as a link between the Old City and the West Bank (Tucker et al., 2023). The legal proceedings of the case had traversed the Israeli court system for an extended duration prior to reaching its highest judicial authority. The local Palestinian community organised regular iftar sit-ins as a means to break their fast during Ramadan while also expressing their opposition to the expulsions. These expulsions were part of a larger operation targeting a minimum of 27 other houses that had yet to be executed. The actions described above garnered the interest of ultra-nationalist Jewish individuals. On 10 May, supported by recently elected Knesset member Itamar Ben Gvir, they invaded Sheikh Jarrah with the intention of disrupting the demonstrations and, on occasion, engaging in acts of physical aggression against nonviolent demonstrators. The Israeli police used non-lethal crowd control measures, including the use of sponge bullets, shock grenades, and skunk water, resulting in several injuries among the affected individuals. A significant number of Palestinians were later subjected to physical assault by law enforcement officers upon their apprehension. Ongoing tensions and arrests persist in the present day (Henriette et al., 2023).

The situation was exacerbated during this period due to the announcement made by Palestinian Authority (PA) President Mahmoud Abbas on April 29th, in which he declared the indefinite postponement of the parliamentary elections originally planned for May 22nd in the occupied Palestinian territories. It is plausible that Abbas harboured concerns over the potential electoral performance of his fragmented Fatah faction. However, he officially justified the decision to delay the elections by highlighting the lack of guarantees from Israeli authorities regarding the inclusion of East Jerusalem inhabitants in the electoral process. Israeli authorities actively impeded the process of election campaigning in East Jerusalem during the month of April by apprehending Palestinian leaders and their supporters. The detentions elicited strong anger among Palestinians from many political backgrounds, as they saw these acts as potential obstacles to their efforts in revitalising their national institutions via democratic means, a course of action that had been encouraged by international stakeholders (Emma & Ben, 2023).

The fourth trigger was shown to be the most significant. On the evening of May 7th, there was a confrontation between Israeli police and young Palestinians, resulting in the use of force against those participating in prayer at the Al-Aqsa mosque located inside the fortified Old City. This incident resulted to the injury of several individuals. The authorities implemented gate closures at the mosque, which has significant religious importance as the third holiest place for Muslims, behind Mecca and Medina. It is worth noting that imposing such comprehensive access limitations, even as a reaction to violent demonstrations, often results in a heightened level of conflict (Emma & Ben, 2023). On 8 May, the actions of the police exacerbated the situation by impeding the access of Palestinian people by bus transportation to Jerusalem, so obstructing the ability of many Muslims to approach Al-Aqsa for prayers on laylat al-qadr, which is widely regarded as the most sacred night of the Ramadan period. Subsequently, Israeli military personnel initiated an assault on Muslim individuals engaged in prayer at the Holy Esplanade, also known as Haram al-Sharif/Temple Mount, on the aforementioned evening. On the following day, Israeli military personnel forcibly entered the premises, used non-lethal stun grenades and tear gas canisters against those engaged in prayer, forcibly gaining access to the mosque and engaging in physical altercations with others there. A significant number of Palestinians sustained injuries and a considerable amount were apprehended. On the 10th of May, Israeli military personnel conducted a further incursion and seized control of the keys to the main entrances of the mosque.  On the day of 10 May, a significant occurrence took place, known as Jerusalem Day, which has great significance for Israelis as it commemorates the perceived reunification of East Jerusalem, including the Old City, with West Jerusalem during the 1967 conflict (Emma & Ben, 2023). On the same day, there was a demonstration by Palestinian inhabitants of East Jerusalem in response to the planned march of Jewish ultra-nationalists through the Old City, with the intention of reaching Al-Aqsa. In response to international criticism, particularly pressure from the United States, Israeli authorities made the decision to divert the march in order to prevent the escalation of violence. However, it is important to note that tensions had already reached a precarious state. In light of the recent incidents in Jerusalem, the military faction of Hamas, known as the Izz al-Din al-Qassam Brigades, issued a statement urging Israel to cease its use of force against the Palestinian population residing in the city. The Palestinian armed groups had already initiated the issuance of warnings a week before, expressing their intention to retaliate in response to the heightened tensions in Jerusalem. On May 10th, the Joint Chamber of Palestinian Resistance Factions in the Gaza Strip issued an ultimatum, stipulating that Israel must remove its soldiers from Al-Aqsa and Sheikh Jarrah by 6pm local time, and free all those imprisoned during these incidents (Emma & Ben, 2023). In close proximity to the designated time limit, Hamas initiated a sequence of rocket launches directed against the city of Jerusalem. The Israeli military responded by initiating aerial attacks on the Gaza Strip, resulting in the loss of lives of 28 individuals, including nine minors, within the first hours. Additionally, they conveyed the intention to pursue an extended course of action, perhaps including a ground incursion, over the course of many days. Theefore, the study asses the causes and effects of the Israeli palestine crisis.

1.2 Statement of the problem

The level of violence inside Israel has diminished after the Israel Defence Forces (IDF) declaration of regaining territorial control along the Gaza border on October 10th. In order to prevent any more incursions, the IDF has implemented mining measures in the region. This action was taken more than 72 hours after the unexpected onslaught by Hamas. (Emanuel, 2023) In spite of the official declaration, a limited contingent of Hamas combatants has persisted inside the confines of Israeli land, resulting in intermittent confrontations that persisted until the 13th of October. The official death toll reported by Israeli authorities for the first day of the Hamas assault has steadily increased, over 1,300 casualties. The bulk of casualties have consisted of civilians, as reported by the Israeli Defence Forces (IDF), who have recorded 264 military deaths.

In addition, Hamas has persistently engaged in the firing of several missiles into the nation of Israel. Although the Iron Dome air defence system deployed by Israel has successfully intercepted the majority of rockets launched into its territory, there have been a limited number of instances when missiles have directly impacted their intended targets. On the 10th of October, a rocket assault in the Eshkol regional council resulted in the unfortunate deaths of two foreign employees. Additionally, on the 11th of October, around twelve individuals sustained injuries in Ashdod. On October 12, an additional five individuals from Israel were reported to have sustained injuries, with two of them being classified as serious, as a result of a further missile assault on Sderot. On October 13th, 2023, there were reports of a minimum of one major injury and three minor injuries in Rehovot (Emanuel, 2023).  As of October 13th, Israel is now engaged in preparations for a future ground invasion of Gaza, as shown by an ongoing substantial military buildup around the border. However, the Israeli offensive encounters significant problems because to the approximately 200 Israeli troops and civilians held captive by Hamas inside the Gaza region (BBC, 2023). On Thursday morning, the Israeli military indicated that a political decision about the initiation of the ground assault had not yet been reached. On October 13th, Israel sent a notification to Palestinians residing in northern Gaza, urging them to transfer to the southern region of Gaza within a 24-hour timeframe. This advisory implied the potential initiation of a ground assault by Israeli forces. Hence, the study will assess  the causes  and effects of the israeli palestine crisis.

1.3       Objective of the study

The broad objective of the study is to assess the causes and effects of the Israeli Palestine crisis. The specific objectives of the study is as follows

i.                    Find out the causes of the Israeli - Palestinian crisis.

ii.                  Assess the effects of the  Israeli - Palestinian crisis.

iii.                Analyze the challenges in resolving the Israeli- Palestinian crisis

1.3 Research Questions

The following questions have been prepared for the study

i.          What are the causes of the Israeli - Palestinian crisis?

ii.        What are the effects of the  Israeli - Palestinian crisis?

iii.      What are the challenges in resolving the Israeli- Palestinian crisis?

1.4 Significance of the study

The findings of the study will be significant to both the Israeli and paletinian government as it will reveal the extent to which the crisis between both states have affected their people and economy and therefore find a compromising ground to resolve the issues between them.

The findings of the study will be significant to the academic community as it will contribute to the existing literature.

1.6       Scope of the study

The study focuses on  the causes and effects of the israeli palestine crisis. Hence, the study will find out the causes of the Israeli - Palestinian crisis, assess the effects of the  Israeli - Palestinian crisis and Analyze the challenges in resolving the Israeli- Palestinian crisis.

1.7       Limitation of the study

Like in every human endeavour, the researchers encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire, and interview), which is why the researcher resorted to a moderate choice of sample size. More so, the researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. As a result, the amount of time spent on research will be reduced

1.8       Definition of terms

Crisis: a time of intense difficulty or danger.

This material content is developed to serve as a GUIDE for students to conduct academic research

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