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  1. Background of the study

As the formerly colonised peoples become more self-assertive, nationalism looks to have gained significant influence. However, in Europe, nationalism seems to be evolving in new ways. The consolidation of the U.S.S.R. into a unified political entity with cultural self-governance, and the steps made towards the political and economic unification of Western Europe, may serve as two contrasting models of future developments. Simultaneously, we see a comparable phenomenon occurring in other recently established countries, where multiple previous independent entities are being amalgamated into a single cohesive entity (Negedu & Atabor, 2015). These newly formed states, some of which were under colonial administration for as little as fifty years, were established by merging separate sovereign entities.In each scenario, the challenge lies in cultivating fresh allegiances to the newly established authority, whether it is the U.3.S.R., the E.E.C., or a newly formed country. The arrangement of these allegiances, if a more suitable phrase is unavailable, is referred to as nationalism. It is widely recognised that nationalism is a very new occurrence. The intertwined ideas of the state and the social environment of humanity have undergone significant fundamental transformations (Oladeji, 2017). Firstly, nationalism cannot be understood without the prior existence of popular sovereignty and a thorough reevaluation of the hierarchical relationship between rulers and the ruled, as well as between social groups and castes. Consequently, the country or state is no longer seen as the ruler's personal possession, but rather as the collective responsibility of all citizens, with the citizen being considered the ultimate authority. However, in order for this notion to arise, it was necessary for the citizen to emerge instead of the subject. Nationalism often emerges concurrently with or subsequent to mass mobilisation, which refers to the integration of the whole population into a shared political structure.The number is 2. This phenomenon is particularly evident in developing countries (Omotoso and Oladeji, 2017).

Nation building is a term that is universally accepted and has subjective interpretations depending on individuals. It presupposes that an individual is deliberately advancing ideas and concepts. Nation building is the deliberate and organised endeavour to unite individuals or groups of people in order to accomplish shared goals. The process entails psychologically reconstructing individuals in new autonomous regions who have diverse languages, religions, and values, in order to instill in them a new feeling of collective belonging and shared identity (Omotoso and Oladeji, 2017). Olasupo, Oladeji, and Ijeoma (2017) argue that nation building refers to the collective set of processes involved in the advancement and progress of a country. country building may be defined as the deliberate effort to ensure the endurance and development of a country, aiming to establish a resilient and progressive society. It is an endeavour to fully use the capabilities of a country, including its people and natural resources, for the welfare of its population. Nation building encompasses the involvement of people, groups, and organisations in the domains of politics, economy, religion, social, and cultural aspects. Therefore, it is imperative to address nation building and development via democratic means (Buari, 2016). The process of nation building and growth is characterised by gradual and incremental changes, rather than sudden and radical transformations. The process of social and political change is time-consuming and cannot be accelerated externally. It consists of components of authentic self-governance, establishing efficient governing institutions, cultural compatibility, and the need for a strategic direction that entails long-term planning. Obiozor (2015) defines nation building as the deliberate execution of procedures aimed at development, which is seen as a desired, widely anticipated, planned, managed, and influenced outcome of government activity. It is a complex process that entails the restructuring and realignment of the whole political, economic, and social structure. Development should result in enhanced earnings and outputs. It should result in profound transformations in the institutional, social, and administrative framework, as well as in public attitudes, habits, and beliefs, ultimately leading to the complete elimination of absolute poverty. Therefore, the study analysis of evolution of nationalism and state-building in Nigeria

    1. Statement of the problem

The multitude of crises and agitations now occurring in Nigeria serve as evidence that the country is still progressing slowly and facing difficulties in its efforts to establish a strong foundation for nation-building, even after 57 years of independence. The presence of various challenges such as the Niger-Delta militancy in the South-South, secessionist agitations in the South-East, Herdsmen/farmers clashes in the North-Central, the Boko Haram insurgency in the North-East, and sporadic ethno-religious conflicts throughout the country clearly demonstrate a significant lack of national unity. Various obstacles have hindered the process of nation-building in Nigeria (Sobowale, 2016). They possess an abundant and limitless supply. However, it is enough to assert that these variables are dependent on the lasting effects of colonialism, the division caused by religious and ethnic differences, the lack of effective leadership, and an economy heavily reliant on a single commodity. Hence, the need to analyze evolution of nationalism and state-building in Nigeria.

1.3 Objective of the study

The broad objective of the study is a historical analysis of evolution of nationalism and state-building in Nigeria. The specific objectives is as follows

  1. Analyze the evolution of nationalism in Nigeria.

  2. Assess impact of nationalism on political stability in Nigeria

  3. Examine the challenges of nationalism and state building in Nigeria

1.4 Research Questions

The following questions have been prepared to guide the study

  1. What is the evolution of nationalism in Nigeria?

  2. What is impact of nationalism on political stability in Nigeria?

  3. What are the challenges of nationalism and state building in Nigeria?

1.5 Significance of the study

The findings of the study will be significant to students, Nigerian government and policy makers as it will reveal how our state building started and also expose the challenges facing the government.

The findings of the study will be significant to the academic community as it will contribute to the existing literature.

1.6 Scope of the study

The study focuses on a historical analysis of evolution of nationalism and state-building in Nigeria. Hence, the study will analyze the evolution of nationalism in Nigeria, assess impact of nationalism on political stability in Nigeria and examine the challenges of nationalism and state building in Nigeria.

1.7 Research Methodology

Research methodology deals with the different ways or methods the researcher applied in order to carry out the research as well as the instrument used for gathering the data. There are several research methodologies appropriate for answering the research questions. The type of research methodology used in this research to gather data and relevant information is the historical research. This will involve the making of oral interviews and collections of materials from secondary sources, such as books, journal articles, magazines, internet sources, international and national conference proceedings, published and unpublished articles.

1.8 Definition of terms

Nationalism: identification with one's own nation and support for its interests, especially to the exclusion or detriment of the interests of other nations.

State- building: political and historical processes of creation, institutional consolidation, stabilization and sustainable development of states, from the earliest emergence of statehood up to the modern times.

This material content is developed to serve as a GUIDE for students to conduct academic research

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  • Methodology: Yes available

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