1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.1 BREAKFAST Breakfast cereal is defined as food obtained by swelling, roasting, grinding, rolling and flaking of any cereal e.g. maize, barley, wheat, sorghum, millet, bender, (1982). Breakfast cereal food can be classified according to the amount of domestic cooking required, the form of the product or dish, the cereal used as raw material. Kent (1982) reported that all cereal contains a large proportion of search in its natural form the starch is insoluble, tasteless and insulted for human consumption. To make it digestible and acceptable it must be cooked. In see of hot cereal the cooking is carried out domestically, but ready to eat cereals comprises flaked, putted shredded and granular product, generally made from, wheat maize or rice, although oats and barley are also used. The basic cereal may be enriched with sugar, syrup, honey or malt extract. All types are prepared by processes, which tend to cause dextrinization rather them gelatinization of the starch. The manufacture of “ogi” (maize pap) is the production obtain by fermentation of corn Muller, (1970) when the fermented mass is wrapped in banana leaves and cooked, it is known as “agidi” which has a dry matter content of about 10 per cent. banigo and Muller, (1972) identified the carboxylic acid of ogi fermentation. They found 11 acids with lactic, acetic and butyric acid being the most important Akinrele (1970) reported that the souring of the maize took lace spontaneously without the addition of inoculates or enzymes. He identified the organism involve in this in aided fermentation and investigated their effect on the nutritive value of the food. He identified the moulds as epholosporium, fusarium, aspergillus and penicillin species and the aerobic bacteria as coryne bacterium and aerobacter species while the main lactic acid bacterium he found was lacto bacillus planetarium. There were also yeast’s: candida mycodermia, saccharomyces cerevisiae and hodotorula sp. although “ogi” is suppose to have an improve B, vitamin content, the result are quite variable, at least for thiamin riboflavin and niacin. The ogi making process is quite complex and the porridge can also be prepared from sorghum, rice, millet and maize. Malted sorghum flour used in production of breakfast cereal, which can be used as a substituted for other food produced from other cereals. Aisien, (1982) reported that modification in sorghum grain endosperm during growth and malting was found to be associated mainly with increase activities of amylase Endo B glucose and limit dextrinase and Endo protease. He also reported that the major starch degradanting enzymes was x-amylase the activities of Endo protease were comparably higher in endosperm than in the embryo during seedling growth jayatisa et al (1980) and novella (1978) found that the malting of sorghum is accompanied by large starch loss up to sorghum is accompanied by large starch loss up to 25 % probably due to respiration. Sorghum as a cereal has some chemical component as barley as well as endogenous hydrolyzing enzymes though not as much as that of barley maltshambe et al (1989). Sorghum has vitamin B such as vitamin B, (thiamin) vitamin B2 (riboflavin) and vitamin B3 (nititrinic acid) among other nutrient essential for yeast metabolism (Aucamp, et al 1961) carganpang (1985) Briggs et al (1981) and shark el al (1980) showed that the gelatrinization temperature of sorghum starch is relatively high compared to that of barley. sorghum gelatrinization temperature ranges from 69.750 while that of barley is between 60.620c we have found that sorghum malted flour can be substituted for rice flour in part or a or a total substitution with noreadily apparent problem chance for grittines and similar quality of finished products with other common flours used in gluten free baking sorghum will also do well for home and commercial use or the gluten free diet. Sorghum can be putted, popped, shredded and flaked to produce ready to eat breakfast cereal. The major categories of traditional food are as fellows fermented and unfermented flat bread, fermented and unfermented thin and thick porridge, steamed and boiled cooked products snacks foods and alcoholic and monalioholic beverage can be achieved from sorghum. “Acha” Digitaria exilis being relatively unknown annual cereal grain according to Aniche and Anih (1994) the carbohydrate content of “Acha” is 71 %, the calorie value of “Acha” is reported to be 463k cal/100g (white Acha). jideani (1985) which are comparable to sorghum to 394.09k cal/100g. Recent development showed that “Acha” is low but has a high carbohydrate content that was why it was incorporated with sorghum and cassava starch to form breakfast cereal. Cassava is one if the raw material uses in this work which is an indigenous and staple food. The few misconception related to cassava especially with regard to its low nutritional value. Ohkoye, (1993) reported that lactic acid fermentation is involve in production of garri, lafu and fufu. Cassava starch are mainly products that are little used direct human consumption and the starch could be used as a thickener in such as pit filling, soup sources and gravies, cassava with high quality unfermented flour including fortified cassava flour are now more accessible be cause of the improving processing and technology method for processing many foods. Breakfast cereal manufactured, shedded wheat made from low protein soft wheat has a protein content considerably lower than that of putted wheat, which is made from a high protein, hard wheat such as durum wheat kent, (1983). all cereal products are difficult in the amino lysine, but the deficiency may be relatively greater in ready to act cereals than in bread because of changes that occur in the protein at high temperature of treatment. However, lysine deficiency is of less importance in ready to eat breakfast cereals than in bread because the former are generally consumed with milk, which is a good source of lysine, moreover some ready to eat breakfast cereal have a protein supplementation. The calorie value of ready to eat cereal eaten is higher than that for bread 975kj/100g: 233cal/100g largely on account of the relatively lower moisture contents of former compared at equal moisture contents the difference in calorie value is small. Fat and cholesterol contents may be lower than those of some other cereal foods. Many of the ready to eat cereals manufactured are enriched with vitamins iron and some with protein with the high protein fraction of what and oat flour, dilated wheat germ, Soya flour, non-fat dry milk, casein, or wheat gluten and the vitamin B (pyridoxm) D3 and C some ready to eat breakfast cereals n the U.S.A. are enriched also with vitamin A and B12 (Kent, 1983)
1.2 AIMS AND OBJECTIVE To determine the consumer’s acceptability and physic- chemical quality of breakfast cereal from malted sorghum vulgate var. k sv. 8, “Acha” Digitaria exilis flour and cassava starch. To determine the getting capacity of two flour with cassava starch in formulating breakfast cereal.