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1.1: Background of the study

In the early years before social media, there have been a number of traditional forms of advertising such as letter writing, mailing, posting, fax, telegram; just to name but a few. These forms hail back to the 1960s. However, today their effectiveness is on the decline.

According to the site, traditional advertising is becoming quite expensive with fewer returns, the channels such as TV adverts, radio adverts, mail messaging and door to door marketing or PR are not viable and have been taken over by social media which is less expensive and offers two ways communication and instant responses (Rosen, 2012).

In recent years the online environment is viewed by users from a new perspective, in a commercial way. Its development and the emergence of online stores have turned users into consumers. Also, the most important role of social media has changed the way consumers and marketers communicate (Hennig-Thurau, Gwinner, Walsh, 2004). informational society influences the consumer buying decision and product evaluation.

Social media provides a new channel to acquire product information through peer communication according to (Kozinets, 1999). However, with the aid of information and modern communication technologies, consumers are able to shop via the internet using several social media and different websites (Toomey and Wysocki 2005). online shopping, online buying, and internet shopping are all names used in purchasing or buying products or services via the internet using social media and different websites (Li and Rhang, 2002).

Using WhatsApp in your business will enable you to engage and relate to your customers using an instant messaging service they are familiar with. Easily send reach content such as images, gifts, and even product, brochures. Whatsapp for business take your customers to support up a level.

Whatsapp application is very appropriate for business due to its unbeatable and user-friendly features which permits communication between two or more parties and easy understanding. Thereby significantly reducing misunderstanding between business associates. Such user-friendly features include;

Instant messaging (IM)

This feature permits Whatsapp users to communicate by exchanging words in a matter of seconds. When a message is sent using an instant messaging feature, the recipient replies in less than two seconds after receiving the message.

Voice Service

Voice service is considered one of the best Whatsapp offers. It relates and is convenient to people of all classes and walks of life. With the voice service feature, an illiterate is capable of communicating without having to type. Also, this feature, enables very busy people, maybe driving, writing, or attending to other people, to simply talk than having to stress writing. Again, it permits very long messages to simply be spoken in a matter of seconds rather than typing for a couple of minutes.

Video calls

This feature is most appropriate and convenient to solve tremendously the problem of scam. The feature will enable you to talk one-on-one or one-on-many as though the people were with you. One-on-one communication is when you are communicating with just a person, while one-on-many is during a conference call.

Unlimited media transfer

This service which is provided by the Whatsapp application permits users to exchange an unlimited number of photos. As a business person, you can send an unlimited number of your products/ services to buyers and potential buyers either directly into their accounts or via a created group for your business.


This is another feature Whatsapp offers to its users. With this feature, the administrator(s) communicate with two or more persons at the same time. Whatsapp presently grants a maximum of 250 participants per group. At the same time, Whatsapp gives an unlimited number of creation of groups to its users, this permits a business person to create up to four groups with which they can have access to at least 1000 participants.

Whatsapp media platform is a web-based service which is also known as a “social networking site”. Social media refers to network relationships and interactions among different users. (Kempe and Chin 2003), sited social media such as (Whatsapp, Facebook, Instagram, Twitter) enable users to maintain great connections among themselves as well as with others. (Ellison and Kozinets, 2007), by achieving more than one task and facilitating the way of communicating and sharing different information, comments, thoughts, videos & images, (Kietmann, 2011).

According to Arens (2002:7), advertising is the structured and composed non-personal communication of information usually paid for and usually pervasive in nature, about products by identified sponsors through various media. Advertising present skills of copywriting, illustration, layout, typography, scripturing, and video-making based on them or copy platform to win converts to a product, services or idea.

One peculiar feature of all advertisement is the identification of the sponsors. This is to ensure that somebody takes responsibility for whatever happens as a result of the exposure to the advertisements. An advertising medium is any paid means used to present an advertisement to its target audience. The media include radio, television and prints, the choice and use of media to achieve maximum results at minimum cost will make the advertising cost effective.

The medium used in the presentation of advertising is another essential variable that will affect the message. The advertising must make a conscious attempt at identifying severability, both geographically and inters of audience quality or type. To a large extent, the advertising message plays a dominant role in informing and motivating consumer buying action, other variables such as the consumers, social and preference group, literacy level, and of course, the elements of the marketing mix namely: product, price, distribution channels, and personal selling are also factors that determine the purchase behaviour of the prospect/consumers.

Consumers today are progressively utilizing technology and particularly social media as an effective tool in their online shopping process. This process can be defined as an electronic process that allows consumers to deal with business people and meet their purchases needs. (Pookulangara and Kaesler, 2011) in their study of social media marketing indicate that social media enables 25% of all consumers to post link about products and services information in their retail sites to update other users about the purchase process.

Another study of (Miller, 2010), stated in his research of online marketing that social media marketing has made a very important role in persuading consumers to buy online. He found that 70% of consumers are visiting social media to get useful information, 49% of them made the decision to buy certain products and 60% of consumers prefer to share their information about the product with others online. However, the actual transactions of purchasing processes occur for only 7% of consumers, (Miller and Lammas, 2010).

The most prominent technological development in Nigeria that has enhanced consumer buying behaviour are social media organs, the most common of which is the Whatsapp media platform, and also Mobile money services. Whatsapp media platform of recent years has gain deep ground in every facet of business life worldwide.

In Nigeria, it is no different. This platform is very easy to use and is extremely less costly than any other social media organ. Whatsapp also has end-user encryption which makes communication secret and can’t be accessed by a third party. Apart from Whatsapp, consumers’ buying behaviour in Nigeria has been enhanced by the coming of mobile money services offered by Mobile Telephone companies such as MTN, (mobile money) Airtel, Glo, and Etisalat (9Mobile).

These technologies have greatly enhanced consumer buying behaviour since businesses have met the consumers right at their doorsteps with even wider varieties, with the help of Whatsapp media platform and at the same time eased financial transactions such that, both parties don’t even have to meet physically for a complete business transaction, and also no more problem of change with the help of mobile money services.

Whatsapp jewelry advertisement has a great influence on the buying behaviour of undergraduates of University of Nigeria, Nsukka, students belongs to different whatsapp groups that markets jewelry, you will be sure to see different types, shapes and quality. Whatsapp jewelry advertisement has been in market for many years. Today the Whatsapp jewelry advertisement have become a competitive market with various brands. Thus there is need for the use of Whatsapp jewelry advertising to create awareness and to promote sales of that particular product or services. There are several advert messages in the social media, but the issue is ‘do all these advert influence the consumer decision?’ if advertisement does not create any positive change in consumers decision all the resources such as money, media, message etc will become wasted. Therefore, it is important to find out the use of whatsapp for jewelry advertisement and its impact on buying behaviour of undergraduates of University of Nigeria, Nsukka.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

Products and services and the buying behaviour of customers are basic elements of internet marketing. This is because the two elements form the main importance of internet marketing. In the last ten years, there has been a universal shift in media use towards digital media. This implies the internet is becoming important for all services (Soyoye & Jenyo, 2015). The scope of marketing communication has broadened due to the growth and new development of the internet. This has enabled a large number of people to be reached no matter where they are located (Laudon 2018).

The internet has enabled a massive expansion of the marketplace information intensity majorly by offering marketers and consumers complete real-time information about clients as they engage in the market (Laudon, 2018). The major problem faced by most youths is the marketing of their products or services especially in a town like Buea where several small businesses are been operated. In order to respond to this stiff competition, most youths are expected to draw up an appropriate budget for advertisement and media which give expected results which is equally problematic.

It is also vital to know the art of advertisement, how advertisement influences the perception of consumers and changes their point of view. There are a number of types of jewelry advertisement media which consumers and potential consumers are exposed to daily which include the radio, television, newspapers and magazines, billboards, websites, etc. The extent to which these different mediums influenced consumers buying behaviour is not known. In Nigeria, two authors (Ayo & Adewoye, 2011), concluded, despite the development in the digital marketing space, clients will still access online mediums such as Whatsapp media platforms to look for information but will eventually purchase traditionally.

Possible contributors which are found to influence such behaviour are risks (security issues) and trust, technology fit, a nd infrastructure. Given the unending development of the internet in relation to the number of users, transaction volumes, and business penetration, this research is aimed to examine the use of whatsapp for jewelry advertisement and its impact on buying behaviour of undergraduates of University of Nigeria, Nsukka.

1.3 Objectives of the Study

The main objective of this study is to investigate the use of whatsapp for jewelry advertisement and its impact on buying behaviour of undergraduates of University of Nigeria, Nsukka. Other specific objectives are to:

  1. Find out the extent Whatsapp advertisement has an significant influence on the buying behaviour of undergraduates of University of Nigeria, Nsukka .

  2. Ascertain whether Whatsapp advertisement increases consumers awareness of jewelry’s.

  3. Investigate whether Whatsapp jewelry advertisement channels has a significant impact on consumers purchase decision.

  4. Ascertain whether Whatsapp jewelry advertisement has a significant impact on consumers consumption pattern of jewelry's.

1.4 Research Questions

The research will seek to answer the following questions:

  1. To what extent does Whatsapp advertisement has a significant influence on the buying behaviour of undergraduates of University of Nigeria, Nsukka?

  2. Does Whatsapp advertisement increase consumers awareness of jewelry’s?

  3. Does Whatsapp jewelry advertisement channels has a significant impact on consumers purchase decision?

  4. Does Whatsapp jewelry advertisement has a significant impact on consumers consumption pattern of jewelry's?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

The following hypotheses are formulated for testing:

Ho: Whatsapp jewelry advertisement channels do not have any significant impact on consumers purchase decision.

Ho: Whatsapp jewelry advertisement channels do have any significant impact on consumers purchase decision.

1.6 Significance of the Study

The study will be significant to Management of business organizations in showing the importance of a veritable social media especially Whatsapp presence aimed at convincing consumers about their product quality.

The study will be significant to jewelry companies by allowing them understand the importance of marketing through social media sites and building consumer trust therein which instigates their preference before buying products. This in turn would increase brand loyalty as well as increase profitability.

This research will help the Government to take a deeper look at the regulatory bodies whom should continually check the practices of organizations online for unethical behaviors. This research would help the government to address issues of sub-standard, fake and adulterated products in the marketplace consumed by Nigerians.

The study will be beneficial to society as it will educate consumers on the indicators that affect their choices especially the mediums to use and the impact of the clout of online followers on their tastes and preferences when buying products. This research will also help consumers understand the need to consider usefulness and needs in relation to their satisfaction before buying products.

1.7 Scope of the Study

This study focuses on the use of whatsapp for jewelry advertisement and its impact on buying behaviour of undergraduates of University of Nigeria, Nsukka. Hence the respondents for this study will b obtained from undergraduates students of University of Nigeria, Nsukka.

1.8 Limitations Of The Study

In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, language barriers, and the attitude of the respondents. However, the researcher were able to manage these just to ensure the success of this study.

Moreover, the case study method utilized in the study posed some challenges to the investigator including the possibility of biases and poor judgment of issues. However, the investigator relied on respect for the general principles of procedures, justice, fairness, objectivity in observation and recording, and weighing of evidence to overcome the challenges.

1.9 Definition of Terms

Influence: The power of the advertisement to affect consumers behaviour or choice through advertising.

Product advertising: This is the art of building and maintaining product awareness with potential buyers.

Consumers: Consumers are people who buy products and services provided by the producers. (Business Dictionary, 2017)

Consumer Buying Behavior: The process by which individuals search for, select, purchase, use and dispose of goods and services, in satisfaction of their needs and wants (Hershey & Blanchard, 2017).

Social Media: Internet or cellular phone based applications and tools used to share information among people. It involves blogging and forums and any aspect of an interactive presence which allows individuals the ability to engage in conversations with one another often (Hershey & Blanchard, 2017).

Advertising: This is a communication medium whose aim is to create the awareness of the product in other to influence the buying behaviour of the consumers.

1.10 Organization of the Studies

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, andethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.

This material content is developed to serve as a GUIDE for students to conduct academic research


  • Reference(s):

    Yes available

  • Methodology: Yes available

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