IMPACT OF TRAFFIC CONGESTION ON WORKERS' PRODUCTIVITY
Traffic congestion is a serious problem worldwide, particularly in West Africa, including Nigeria. The problem seems to affect workers in many ways, but especially for productivity within the organization. However, there is very little information on the impact of traffic congestion on worker productivity, mainly in the cities of Nigeria. It is a void that this thesis aims to fill. Data collection for this study was carried out through questionnaires and interviews, questionnaires to 60 respondents, while interviews were administered to three department heads. Respondents were sampled using simple random sampling techniques for those who answered the questionnaire and a sampling technique led by respondents.
The study showed that there was a negative statistical relationship between the time spent in traffic jams in work efficiency, work quality, work efficiency and the progress of PHCN workers in Lagos, but there was no positive relationship. not significant between the time spent in traffic jams in job satisfaction among PHCN workers.
The result showed that; There is a positive and statistically significant relationship between the time spent by office staff in terms of work efficiency, work quality, work efficiency, worker progress and job satisfaction of PHCN employees. The results show that; The time devoted to traffic congestion has a significant impact on work quality, work efficiency, work efficiency and worker progress.
To move forward, this study has the following implications for politics. First, it is imperative that organizations develop an era of labor management policy. For this, the best solution is to implement an electronic time management that will reveal the working time workers. Understand also the time dedicated to workers' work since the study found that workers spending more time at work have a positive impact on their productivity.
BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
The problem of road traffic congestion and its impact on the productivity of workers is increasingly gaining a space in the academia discussions and employers in particular time spent on road traffic congestions and time spent on work among the worker’s plays a significant role on worker’s productivity in an organisation (Lupala, 2010). The traffic congestions in cities of Africa originated from the rapid rural to urban migration from 1980's when many African countries started to adopt changes towards liberalisation of economy and growth trade (Agyemang, 2009).
In Nigeria, during 1980's Lagos state had very few populations and traffic congestion was not a problem. The population growth in cities from 1980's to 2000's has contributed to higher incidence of traffic congestions. The liberalisation has made people be able to import more cars from different countries that added more traffic congestions in urban cities (Elinaza, 2010). Traffic congestion relates to a state of movement deferral (that is; when activity stream is horrifyingly beneath sensible speed) in light of the fact that the quantity of vehicles attempting to utilise roads exceed the plan limit of the movement arrange (Weisbrod, 2010). It is generally seen as a developing wonder in numerous urban territories on the grounds that the general volume of vehicle movement in numerous zones proceeds to become quicker than the general limit of the road systems.
The subsequent activity moderate downs can have an extensive variety of antagonistic effects on individuals and on the business economy, including impacts on air quality (due to extra vehicle outflows), personal satisfaction (because of individual time deferrals), and business action (due to the extra expenses and decreased administration zones for workforce, provider and client markets) (Weisbrod et al., 2002).
We rely on upon our road systems to give access to individuals what's more, spots we need to go. Peak hour activity clog in all huge and developing urban locales around the globe is practically sure to deteriorate amid the following couple of decades as a result of rising populaces and riches, regardless of what strategies are embraced to battle congestion. This result ought not to be viewed as a sign of social disappointment or wrong strategies. Truth be told, traffic congestion regularly comes about because of financial success and different sorts of accomplishment. Individuals gather in substantial numbers in those spots where they most need to be (Davis and Gregory, 2009)
Oni (1992) sees road traffic congestion as multi-dimensional and bewildering citing the example of Lagos state. The countless man-hours lost in traffic congestion and the wastefulness of human energy and motor fuel are factors that have a most serious impact on the economic efficiency, productivity and social productivity. For everyday travelers, the frustration of traffic is obvious. Understanding the impact on cities and the economy, however, is not as straight forward as many would like (David and Gregory, 2009). From an economic perspective, according to them, congestion’s main impact is the lost productivity from more time spent traveling to work rather than working; delaying (or missing) meetings; foregoing interactions among individuals or personal activities due to long travel time; and spending more time to accomplish tasks than would otherwise be necessary if we could reliably plan for accomplishing the same things at free-flow speeds.
Lagos state is the biggest modern, business and open authoritative city for Nigeria; lodging many base camp of numerous administration services and offices, private segments and Non- Governmental Organisations (NGOs). Lagos state creates over 40% of the nations' Gross Domestic Product (GDP), contributes 80% of national government household incomes (Jain, et al, 2012). The city is still the defacto capital of Nigeria and the inside for political, business and modern exercises.
Subsequently, it remains the focal point of all financial, social and political exercises; Locally and universally, it is the center of many activities and the most populous and bustling city in the country (Setebe, 1994). The city is characterized by a high degree of occasional improvement and indigence where about 70% of its population lives in occasional settlement areas (World Bank, 2002). Many people cannot afford the cost of a private car and about 75% of city walks are by open and on foot (Olvera et al., 2003, Nkurunziza et al., 2012).
At a time when the state of Lagos contrasts with the different cities and urban communities of the nation in matters of business, it controls most of the national economy. In the case where a city or city uses an unprofitable transportation method and excellent offices to stack its goods, the performance with regard to the disposal of products and businesses is moderate and inefficient. The higher the number of execution exercises, the greater the number of transport marines required. In addition, the greater the number of marine transportation required, the greater the number of streets and parking spaces required. Population trends, urbanization and family payments, which are a stronger affinity for travel; verified increase in the possession of a car; and the increase in commercial activities and modern measures have led to increased demands for car transport (Oni, 1999: UN, 2011).
According to David and Gregory (2009), the state of Lagos resembles that of other major African cities that have been dominated by larger traffic jams that have a direct impact on worker productivity while reducing management plans. time management work activities. and at the same time family problems. According to the United Nations (2011), higher road congestion causes stress and fatigue among the population, which has a significant impact on the health and productivity of workers. Oni (1992) argued that in traffic jams, workers do not realize time management in the work done, as the outcome affects the progress of their work in an institution. Although the literature has documented the causes and general impacts of the major traffic jams in Lagos State, there has not been sufficient study to link congestion and worker productivity in their organization. This implied that there were gaps in knowledge of the effects of traffic congestion on worker productivity in Lagos State. This led to the completion of this study to fill existing gaps.
The state of Lagos is among the most populated cities in sub-Saharan Africa and is estimated to reach more than 20.6 million people (NBS, 2016). The population growth rate, the increasing number of cars and other transport instruments, the low development of infrastructure such as roads and railways have been attributed to increased congestion in the region (SUMATRA, 2014). The Government of Nigeria is doing everything possible to alleviate the problem of road congestion by investing in rapid transit transportation systems such as the BRT project and building an overflight in the city of Lagos (URT, 2013). However, the problem persists due to the large number of road users who drive personal cars and the inappropriate use of roads while driving without respecting the rules of the road.
A study by Kiunsi (2013) on traffic jams in the city of Lagos from the perspective of physical planning and shows that traffic jams are more severe between 7 a.m. and 9 a.m. (when most workers start their work stations). ). On March 1, 2017, a morning radio broadcast known as "Power Breakfast" from Clouds Fm, around 9:00 am, said "there was a lot of traffic congestion between Tegeta and Mwenge," which meant that workers would be late for their workplaces. . This study aimed to assess the impact of traffic jams on the productivity of workers in PHCN in the state of Lagos. The choice of PHCN is based on the fact that it is one of the organizations whose services are at the heart of Nigeria's economy. Therefore, it is essential to analyze the impact of road congestion on workers' productivity.
The main objective of this study was to assess the impact of road traffic congestion on the productivity of workers’ at PHCN in Lagos state.
To examine relationship between time spent on road traffic congestions and workers’ productivity of an organisation at PHCN in Lagos state.
To examine the relationship between time spent on work and worker’s productivity of an organisation at PHCN in Lagos state.
To determine the effect of time spent on road traffic congestions on worker’s productivity of an organisation at PHCN in Lagos state.
What is the relationship between time spent on road traffic congestions and workers’ productivity of an organisation at PHCN in Lagos state?
What is the relationship between time spending on work and workers’ productivity of an organisation at PHCN in Lagos state?
What is the effect of time spent on road traffic congestions on workers’ productivity of an organisation at PHCN in Lagos state?
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
It is reasonable and obvious that blocking activities on the street was wonderful, a latent problem among the occupants of all units in the city of Lagos. This was due to the way in which each individual who lived, worked or even visited the city had been impacted or touched in various ways by the current obstacles of street movement, leaving aside its general effect on the work performance of the groups City people I was willing to show how traffic congestion contributed to the productivity of workers at the PHCN headquarters.
In particular, he showed how he was associated with the performance of functions and other socio-monetary aspects of everyday life. The review resulted in a reasonable image of the degree or unhappiness hitherto evaluated by the activity block. Since the immediate impact of the activity block is a delay, this thesis demonstrated the impact of this delay on people's daily obligations / programs and also tries to see if there is any mental or physical confusion associated with a blockage of movements that probably prevent people from having daily schedules. The exploration allowed us to know different methods of understanding or procedures that these individuals and associations decide to adapt to the question.
This research exhibited different systems utilised and those in procedure of being executed for reducing the issue of activity clog in the city of Lagos. Most importantly, the examination gave pertinent proposals and recommendations in understanding to the way of the discoveries and also relating it to the present national transportation strategy. Likewise, the exploration analysis pointed a requirement for advanced examination on condition that; there was gap amongst it and different reviews on the issue.
SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study was conducted at the PHCN headquarters in Lagos state, as it is one of the organizations whose services are at the heart of Nigeria's economy. Therefore, it is essential to analyze the impact of traffic jams on workers' productivity. It is also based in the city of Lagos, on the grounds that the city is the most affected by road traffic of all urban communities and all districts of Nigeria. It is also the most prominent populated city with all open, private and universal sociopolitical and monetary segments. Due to this case, there is an incredible number of bosses and workers of formal and informal parties; Be private, open or global. As indicated above, the general population of the different units is based on private and open transport. This shows that they are specifically related to blocking street movements.
As the specialist is not ready to integrate all the people who live and work in the state of Lagos, four public and private sector associations have been chosen so that the magazine is addressed to all the official workers of the city. from the state of Lagos. The number of representatives of these associations was sufficient to serve as a model to discover the social and financial effect of blocking street movements in the state of Lagos. In addition, few learning institutions have been included in the magazine. There were three primary schools, three auxiliary schools and an institution of higher education.
The reasoning behind this choice is that these areas have an immediate link to the problem of transportation in the city of Lagos and only in street transport. As a result, data from individual specialists played an important role in current learning. In addition, prejudices that may arise should be avoided if the review was based on the people of Lagos as they are.
During the study, the researchers faced a series of challenges, including time. The time allotted to the study was not enough to carry out an intensive and exhaustive study because some of the information was not available quickly and easily. The fund for the personally funded study was not sufficient to cover all expenses, such as transportation, food allowances, recruitment of research assistants and stationery.
During his investigation, the researcher encountered administrative problems. Many of the respondents, particularly those who were supposed to use questionnaires, were unable to complete the questionnaire on time and others deceived them to the point of requiring the researcher to redistribute other copies. In addition, many respondents had the idea of obtaining money from the researcher, especially when they knew he was researching as a prerequisite for graduation. The letter of introduction from the university that the researcher had not convinced.
The researcher selected at first to utilise open occasions and ends of the week to direct the examination. Since the alternative was not seen as powerful, the researcher chosen to take yearly leave (28 days) which he was viably figure out how to tackle the issue of time and gather, investigate and translate the gathered information on time. The researcher requested extension for three months in order to address the limitation of delay response of respondents in order to accomplish the work.
ORGANIZATION OF WORK
This study consists of five chapters. Chapter one presents the introduction and background to the problem, statement of the problem, the main and specific objectives of the study and research questions. Other sections presented in this chapter are: scope, significance, limitation, delimitation and organization of the study. Chapter two deals with literature related to the study. It covers introduction, definition of terms, theoretical review, empirical review and the conceptual framework. Chapter three comprises research methodology in which research paradigm, research design, study area, population, sample and sampling techniques, instrumentation, validity and reliability of instruments, administration of instruments and data analysis plan were spelt out. Chapter four presents data analysis and discussion of findings. chapter five covers the summary, conclusion, recommendations and further areas of study.