AN ASSESSMENT OF INTERNALLY DISPLACED PERSONS EXPERIENCES IN IDP CAMP IN KADUNA STATE CHAPTER ONE
1.1 Background of the study
Internally displaced persons (IDPs) refer to collectives of individuals who have been coerced or compelled to evacuate their residences or habitual dwellings, primarily due to the consequences of armed conflict, violations of human rights, natural or anthropogenic calamities. It is important to note that these individuals have not crossed an internationally acknowledged boundary of a sovereign state (Borton, Margie, & Ralf, 2005). However, due to a lack of sufficient understanding on the concentration of some Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) in certain regions of Nigeria, effectively meeting their fundamental requirements continues to pose an escalating difficulty. Identifying individuals based on their numerical identifiers and geographical locations, and then coordinating their healthcare, has been a significant barrier for governmental entities and other stakeholders involved in collaborative care provision. In many areas where they are often established as places of residence, a significant number of internally displaced persons (IDPs) have challenges in obtaining essential services like as power, safe cooking facilities, access to clean drinking water, enough healthcare, and proper sanitation facilities (National Emergency Management Agency-NEMA, 2016). Moreover, internally displaced persons (IDPs) have challenges in effectively managing and adjusting to the many transformations within their unfamiliar surroundings. This hinders their capacity to effectively lead a productive and purposeful life and progress in their personal journey. Individuals who have relocated from primary camps in Borno and Adamawa to alternative locations like as Abuja and other secure states within the nation are encountering challenges in establishing sustainable sources of income. This particular circumstance renders the internally displaced persons vulnerable to a multitude of human rights violations, as a portion of their population must endure the challenges of sustaining themselves after the loss of their sources of income. The future prospects for these individuals who are particularly susceptible are precarious, particularly in light of the ongoing lockdown measures which have significantly impacted economic operations. In addition to the potential vulnerability of internally displaced persons (IDPs) to viral infection, their susceptibility is further exacerbated by the challenges encountered in accessing humanitarian aid due to various factors such as aircraft cancellations, border closures, lockdown measures, and restrictions on the export of medical supplies and equipment imposed by some nations. The aforementioned effect is significantly experienced due to the heavy reliance of a majority of people on humanitarian assistance (United Nations, 2020). In general, the experiences of internally displaced persons (IDPs) are diverse, as they face the loss of their work, housing, and personal safety. Individuals who have been displaced face a multitude of challenges, including but not limited to the potential for arbitrary imprisonment, enforced disappearances, forced conscription, human trafficking, sexual assault, inadequate access to healthcare, insufficient food supply, limited educational prospects, and several other adverse consequences resulting from their relocation (Adekola et al., 2019). In addition to the inadequate living conditions imposed on these internally displaced persons (IDPs) by the Nigerian government, instances of sexual assault against women and girls within various IDP camps have been documented. Furthermore, female detainees have reported experiencing sexual violence at the hands of security personnel, occasionally as a means of eliciting confessions (Amnesty International, 2018). According to Amnesty International (2018)'s report, "It is simply terrible that individuals who had previously endured so much under Boko Haram have been sentenced to more horrible treatment by the Nigerian military. Rather than being afforded protection by the government, women and children have been compelled to endure acts of sexual violence as a means to mitigate the risk of malnutrition or hunger. Upon examining the aforementioned occurrences, it becomes apparent that terrorism and abuse are inextricably linked because to the profound vulnerability experienced by those afflicted in their pursuit of sustenance. Numerous scholarly works have been published regarding the ramifications of the Boko Haram insurgency on both the internally displaced persons and their living conditions in Nigeria. These works include studies conducted by Olanrewaju et al. (2018), Olanrewaju (2019), Isokpan and Durojaye (2016), Shaibu and Olu-Adeyemi (2020), Etikan and Ogunjesa (2019), and Olaoye (2017). Therefore, the researcher sought to assess internally displaced persons experiences in idp camp in kaduna state.
1.2 Statement of the problem
According to Olaoye (2017), scholars have accurately noted that those internally displaced by violence are subject to many types of vulnerability and have specific requirements. Of more concern is the psychological distress endured by these individuals who do not get sufficient protection from governmental entities. Consequently, the government has shown a deficiency in political determination when it comes to addressing the essential and humanitarian requirements of individuals living in internally displaced persons (IDPs) centres (Olanrewaju, 2018). There has been a lack of substantial action seen by the primary governmental bodies responsible for addressing emergency concerns in Nigeria, with regards to adequately addressing the psychological, basic, and human requirements of those living in Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) camps. The individuals impacted by this situation have a lack of social protection as a result of inadequate access to healthcare, housing, and sustenance. The testimonies provided by the victims serve as evidence that there exists a lack of adequate social security measures. Consequently, a portion of the affected individuals find themselves seeking shelter in derelict public structures or exposed to the elements. Additionally, pregnant women are compelled to give birth inside internally displaced persons (IDP) camps without the assistance of a trained midwife, so exacerbating their susceptibility to adverse circumstances. The researcher thereby assess internally displaced persons experiences in IDP camp in Kaduna State.
1.3 Objective of the study
The broad objective of the study is to assess internally displaced persons experiences in IDP camp in kaduna state. The specific objectives is as follows:
i. Examine the livelihood strategies of IDPs in Bama and Gwoza Durumi Abuja Nigeria.
ii. Find out the incidence of human rights abuse in Bama and Gwoza Durumi internally displaced persons camp in Abuja Nigeria.
iii. Assess the strategies to reduce the tough experiences of internally dislaced persons in Bama And Gwoza Durumi Abuja Nigeria.
1.4 Research questions
The following questions have been prepared for :
i. Examine the livelihood strategies of IDPs in kaduna state.
ii. Find out the incidence of human rights abuse in kaduna state internally displaced persons camp.
iii. Assess the strategies to reduce the tough experiences of internally dislaced persons in kaduna State.
1.5 Significance of the study
The findings of this research would provide useful information to psychological centers, and clinical psychologist who seeks to offer therapeutic services to help internally displaced persons with the traumatic experiences. Non-governmental organizations also would benefit from this study even as they worked with IDPs. The research will help the NGO to know to help those who suffer psychologically as a result of what they experienced that necessitate displacement from their homes. This study will provide useful information to the general public. It will provide useful educational materials in the libraries. This study will provide useful literature for further researchers who will conduct related research in the future.
1.7 Scope of the study
The study focuses on internally displaced persons experiences in IDP camp in Kaduna state. Hence, the study will examine the livelihood strategies of IDPs in Kaduna state, find out the incidence of human rights abuse in Kaduna state internally displaced persons camp and assess the strategies to reduce the tough experiences of internally displaced persons in Kaduna state.
1.8 Limitations of the study
Like in every human endeavour, the researchers encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire, and interview), which is why the researcher resorted to a moderate choice of sample size. More so, the researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. As a result, the amount of time spent on research will be reduced.