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This project “production of plane mirror using local raw material” is meant to study the possibility of producing plane mirror using sand rich in silica as its major local raw material.

Plane mirror is produced by casting one side of a sheet glass.  Presently in Nigeria, sheet glass is not used easily produce and as such, the local raw material used in the in the production of plane mirror in this product backing paint.  The facilities for the production include spraying gun and finger brush.

In the course of production, the silver nitrate was first mixed with a reducing reagent; we formaldehyde of glucose, all in a distilled water.  After which the mirror backing paint was mixed with some amount of thinner.  The float glass was then washed with warm water and allowed to dry.  After drying, it was first coated with silver nitrate solution after the use of talcum power to rub on the back of the glass.

A second spraying of mirror- backing paint was done after the silver nitrate coating had dried up.  This whole operation now resulted to a plane-mirror since a plane mirror is also a coated glass.

The reflection of the mirror was taken after coating the glass, while the refractive index of the glass was taken before coating the float glass to form a mirror.




1.1       Historical Background

1.2       Definition:

1.3       Aims:

1.4       Scope of Study:

1.5       Uses:

1.6       Properties:


1.0              LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1       Plane Mirror

2.2       Raw Material for Production of Plane Mirror

2.2.1    Sand

2.2.2          Soda Ash (Sodium Trioxocarbonate Iv)

2.2.3          Limestone (Calcium Trioxocarbonate (W)

2.3.0          Other Raw Material (Ie Additives)

2.3.1          Colouring and Decolourizing Agents

2.3.2          Melting and Refining Agents

2.3.3          Opalizing Agents

2.2.4          Modifiers

2.3.5          Cullet

2.40           Types of Furnaces

2.4.1          Tank Furnance

2.4.2          Pot Furances

2.4.3          Day Tanks

2.4.3          Recuperative Furnance

2.5.0                    Glass Formation

2.5.1          Glass Melting Process

2.5             Preparation of the Batch

2.5.1          Melting Of Glass

2.6             Types of Glasses

2.6.2          Float Glass

2.7             Manufacture of Mirror

2.7.1          Sequence of Production

2.7.2          Cutting

2.7.2          Labelling

2.7.3          Polishing

2.7.4          Washing Operation

2.7.5          Silvering Spraying

2.7.6          Painting

2.7.7          Oven

2.7.8          Cleaning and Inspection

2.7.10        Drilling

2.8.0          Types of Mirrors

2.9.0          Optical Properties of Mirror

2.9.1          Refractive Index and Dispersion

2.9.2          Transparency


3.0             Experiment Procedure for Production Of plane mirror

3.1             Raw Materials

3.2             Apparatus/Equipment

3.3             Preparation of mirror silvering chemical

3.4             Operational procedures involved in the production of plane mirror

3.5                          Experimental Result

3.5.1                    Refractive Index Of Glass

3.5.2          Reflection of Plane Mirror

3.61                      Experimental Date For Refractive Index

3.61.1                Experimental Data For Reflection

3.5.2          Reflection of Plane Mirror








2.0              INTRODUCTION


According to the history of glass- mirror- Eye glasses- spectacles – contact lenses online”, the history of mirror dates back to the ancient time when mankind first saw reflections in a pound or river and considered it magic. At first polished stone or later glass was used in early man-made mirrors later glass was used in combination with metals like tin, mercury, and lead to create mirror.  Today combing glass and metal is still design used in almost all modern mirrors.  Mirrors are made by coating flat glass with silver, gold or mirror paints dates from Roman times and the inventor is unknown.

According to steve Robinson (htlp:11 www. Restoration-advice org/pages/mirrors-history html), mirror made of brass are mentioned is the bible, and mirrors of bronze were is common use among the ancient Egyptians, Greeks and Romans.  Polished silver was also used by the Greeks and Romans to produce reflection.  Crude form of glass mirrors were first made is Venice in 1300.  By the end of 17th century mirrors were made is Britain and  the manufacture of mirrors developed in the other European countries and in U.SA.

The first attempt to back glass with a solution of silver was made by the German chemist Justus von liebiy in 1836, various methods have been developed since then, that depend on the chemical reduction of a silver salt to metallic silver.     

1.2       DEFINITON:            According to “the history of glass-mirror on line” mirror can be defined as a reflecting surface that forms an image of an object when light rays coming from that object fall upon the surface.  A plane mirror, which is flat, reflects light without changing the image.  Thee are two types of mirror; the convex mirror and the concave mirror. A convex mirror look like an upside-down bowl.  In a concave mirror which has bigger in the center, while a concave mirror which has a bowl shape, object looks smaller in the center the

1.3       AIM:   The aim of this project is to determine the production of plane mirror using local raw materials due to its application in our daily activity and life.

1.4       SCOPE OF STUDY:            The scope of this project is to outline the sequence of production of mirror using local raw material and the operations involved.

1.5       USES: The uses of plane mirror in science cannot be overemphasized. For instance, plane mirror is one of he apparatus needed for the experimental verification of the law of reflection in physics.  The inclination of plane mirrors can also help in the manufacture of periscope and kaleidoscope.  Plane mirror is also widely used in our home as security.  It is also use to see distance object in our homes.  It can be used in building houses after tempering and for domestic purposes.

1.6       PROPERTIES:         Plane mirror undergoes regular refection and produce a virtual image on incident beam of light or ray of light on the surface, but apart form that plane mirror has physical and chemical properties.  This physical properties are viscosity, strength, index of refraction, dispersion light transmission, (both total and as a function of wavelength, corrosion resistance and electrical properties.  The chemical properties are reaction involves diffusion of corns out of glass into the attacking materials and counter diffusion of ions form attacking material into the glass.  Reactions in which the silicate network is demolished.

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