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EFFECT OF TURBERCULOSIS AMONG PATIENT ATTENDING GENERAL HOSPITAL ZURU

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EFFECT OF TURBERCULOSIS AMONG PATIENT ATTENDING GENERAL HOSPITAL ZURU

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background of the study

Since the beginning of recorded history, tuberculosis has been one of the leading causes of sickness and death on every continent in the globe. Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the pathogen that's responsible for causing tuberculosis, a persistent infectious illness (Adeiza, Abba, & Okpapi, 2015; Lienhardt et al., 2022). Although tuberculosis (TB) typically affects the lungs, it has the potential to attack every organ in the body (Adeiza et al., 2015). People who have not been properly treated or who have treatment that is insufficient might spread the illness via their coughing, sneezing, singing, or talking, which allows infected droplet nuclei to be inhaled by others (Adeiza et al., 2015). People who come into intimate touch with persons who have the illness are at the greatest danger of catching the sickness themselves (Adeiza et al., 2015; Nagarajuet al., 2015). 

It is believed that around one third of the world's population is infected with tuberculosis (TB), yet only approximately 5–15% of individuals will acquire active TB at some point in their lives (Narasimhan et al., 2015). The primary objective of national tuberculosis programs (NTPs) is to bring down the overall incidence of tuberculosis (TB) and the mortality rate associated with it (Lienhardt et al., 2022). Despite worldwide attempts to prevent tuberculosis, the disease's incidence and fatality rate remain alarmingly high in a large number of underdeveloped nations. It was projected that 10.4 million individuals become infected with tuberculosis in 2016, and that the illness was responsible for the deaths of 1.3 million people in the same year (WHO, 2017). People who are HIV positive have the greatest rate of tuberculosis infection, and research has shown that they have a cumulative risk of acquiring TB over the course of their lives that is at least 30 percent greater than the rate of people who are not HIV positive, which ranges from 5 to 10 percent (Adeiza et al., 2015). India, Indonesia, China, the Philippines, and Pakistan are the countries with the greatest rates of TB-related deaths (WHO, 2017). These nations were responsible for a combined 56% of the world's newly diagnosed cases of tuberculosis in 2016. (WHO, 2017). In Nigeria, there are roughly 407,000 new cases of tuberculosis diagnosed every year, resulting in approximately 115,000 fatalities (WHO, 2017). There is reason to believe that the negative effects of this condition, which can be treated, may be mitigated if appropriate preventative and curative actions are taken by the public health community. Therefore, the study examines the effect of turberculosis among patient attending general hospital zuru. 

Statement of the problem

TB poses a risk to the public's health on a global scale. Recommendations for the treatment of tuberculosis have been produced in many countries as part of anti-TB efforts. These guidelines are intended to assist medical professionals in the care of tuberculosis patients (Wang, Shen, Shi, & Chiou, 2016). It has been discovered that better TB management may result from members of parliament following these principles (Adejumo et al., 2015). 58% of patients in South Africa were diagnosed with tuberculosis later than they should have been because they did not comply to the standards (Naidoo et al., 2017). It was determined that the delay in diagnosis was caused by practitioners ordering an excessive amount of medical tests, which in turn extended the amount of time that passed between the patient's presentation at health facilities and the diagnosis of tuberculosis. Maintaining strict adherence to established treatment protocols for tuberculosis (TB) is essential to successful patient care and enhanced therapeutic results. Hence, the study seeks to examine the effect of turberculosis among patient attending general hospital zuru.

Objective of the study

The primary objective of the study is to examine the effect of turberculosis among patient attending general hospital zuru. The specific objectives is as follows:

To find out the causes of tuberculosis among patients.

To assess the effect of tuberculosis among patients attending general hospital.

To examine whether there is treatment for tuberculosis in the general hospital.

To recommend strategies  general hospital can use to manage tuberculosis patients.

Research Questions

The following questions have been prepared for the study:

What are the causes of tuberculosis among patients?

What are the effect of tuberculosis among patients attending general hospital?

Is there  a treatment for tuberculosis in the general hospital?

What are the recommend strategies general hospital can use to manage tuberculosis patients?

Research hypotheses

The following hypothesis have been formulated for the study:

HO: There  is no  treatment for tuberculosis in the general hospital

HA:  There  is treatment for tuberculosis in the general hospital.

1.6 Significance of the study

The study would contribute to the knowledge of the perceptions of PMPs towards national TB guidelines. Developing a dissemination plan that targets public health authorities, policy makers, and relevant stakeholders in the public and private sectors will stimulate further research on strategies that would best increase the buy-in of the guidelines by PPs.

The study will be significant to the academic community as it will contribute to the existing literature.

1.7 Scope of the study

The study will find out the causes of tuberculosis among patients. The study will also  assess the effect of tuberculosis among patients attending general hospital. The study will further examine whether there is treatment for tuberculosis in the general hospital.  Lastly, the study will recommend strategies  general hospital can use to manage tuberculosis patients. Hence, this study is delimited  Zuru, Kebbi State.

1.8 Limitation of the study

Like in every human endeavour, the researchers encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire, and interview), which is why the researcher resorted to a moderate choice of sample size. More so, the researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. As a result, the amount of time spent on research will be reduced.

1.9 Definition of terms

Tuberculosis:  an infectious bacterial disease characterized by the growth of nodules (tubercles) in the tissues, especially the lungs.


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