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AN EVALUATION OF MATERNAL HEALTH CHALLENGES IN INTERNALLY DISPLACED PERSONS (IDP) CAMPS IN NORTHCENTRAL, NIGERIA

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AN EVALUATION OF MATERNAL HEALTH CHALLENGES IN INTERNALLY DISPLACED PERSONS (IDP) CAMPS IN NORTHCENTRAL, NIGERIA


CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the study

In Sub-Saharan Africa, maternal morbidity and death rates are often high, particularly in northern Nigeria, where many governments fail to achieve the objectives of safe motherhood. Pregnant women may get maternal healthcare services to track the status of their pregnancy, facilitate childbirth, and ensure that the mother and child receive the appropriate prenatal and postnatal care. Pregnancy-related problems are thought to be the cause of 587,000 maternal fatalities annually, according to estimates from the World Health Organisation (WHO) (Desai, 2018). The majority of these fatalities occur in Sub-Saharan Africa, with Nigeria having the second-highest maternal mortality rate in the world behind India, and contributing almost 10% of all maternal deaths worldwide (Lawal, 2019). Essential health measures, such as prenatal care and medically assisted birth, may prevent these unjust deaths (Abdulazeez, 2016). The number of internally displaced people (IDPs) increased sharply in 2011—by 7.5%—and was associated with escalating conflict and violence throughout Sub-Saharan Africa. Approximately two-thirds of those who are forcefully relocated worldwide are internally displaced. The number of internally displaced people (IDPs) worldwide has risen gradually, from around 17 million in 1997 to 28.8 million in 2012, according to the Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre (IDMC). Maternal mortality is higher in displaced settings because to a lack of basic healthcare infrastructure. In an emergency, maternal health care is not a luxury—rather, it is a need that prevents disease and saves lives. The sociodemographic traits of women have a significant impact on how often individuals use maternal health care. In this context, mother age and parity, education, poverty, delivery location, and place of residency are a few excellent examples (Abdulazeez, 2016). Hence, this study focuses on Maternal Health Challenges in Internally Displaced Persons (IDP) camps in Northcentral, Nigeria

1.2       Statement of the problem

Nigeria and other developing nations face a serious public health crisis due to high rates of maternal morbidity and death. Maternal mortality and morbidity rates in Nigeria remain high even with the implementation of national initiatives aimed at enhancing maternal and child health (Adimula, 2016). The Nigerian government has recently created a number of programmes and policies centred on health in general and maternal health in particular. These policies identify the shortcomings of the current healthcare system in addressing women's health concerns and recognise maternal mortality as a national problem. This study aims to determine whether government health policies tend to cover people in the displaced situation. The number of internally displaced persons in Nigeria has increased recently due to conflicts, violence, natural disasters, and developmental projects. As a result, some Nigerians are not able to access quality healthcare, which puts pregnant women at higher risk. The Nigerian government's health strategies have also failed to adequately address the needs of these displaced people. Research has shown that the bulk of maternal fatalities and impairments may be avoided by timely and early access to high-quality mental health and community services (MHCS) (Imasuen, 2015). MHCS is not widely available to women in developing nations, and research indicates that its use is still low in sub-Saharan Africa (Uzobo and Akhuetie, 2018), including Nigeria (Hamzat, 2016; Nsa, 2018). In Nigeria, for example, only 58% of pregnant women reported attending at least one antenatal clinic, 39% of births are attended by a skilled professional, 35% of deliveries occur in a medical facility, and 43.7% of women receive postnatal care (Nigeria Demographic Health Survey, 2018).The majority of women in displaced settings are unable to access and use mental health and social services (MHCS) due to various issues. Prior research has concentrated on family, individual, and community characteristics linked to the use of maternal health services; however, the access to and utilisation of maternal health care by displaced individuals has not been well explored in these studies. Hence this study evaluate maternal health challenges in internally displaced persons (IDP) camps in Northcentral, Nigeria.

1.3       Objective of the study

The broad objective of the study is to evaluate maternal health challenges in internally displaced persons (IDP) camps in Northcentral, Nigeria. The specific objectives is as follows:

i.          Assess the level of maternal health literacy among internally displaced persons (IDP) camps in Northcentral, Nigeria.

ii.        Determine the factors that affects maternal health of internally displaced persons (IDP) camps in Northcentral, Nigeria.

iii.      Find out the challenges of maternal health on internally Displaced Persons (IDP) camps in Northcentral, Nigeria.

1.4       Research questions

The following questions have been prepared for the study:

i.          What is the level of maternal health literacy among internally displaced persons (IDP) camps in Northcentral, Nigeria?

ii.        What are the factors that affects maternal health of internally displaced persons (IDP) camps in Northcentral, Nigeria?

iii.      What are the challenges of maternal health on internally Displaced Persons (IDP) camps in Northcentral, Nigeria?

1.5 Significance of the study

The study is significant to policy-makers in other to better promote change and improve maternal and child health among women in internally displaced persons camp, it is necessary to provide more insight into the relationship between maternal knowledge and child health outcomes.

The findings of the study will be significant to the academic community as it will contribute to the existing literature.

1.6 Scope of the study

The study focuses on maternal health challenges in internally displaced persons (IDP) camps in Northcentral, Nigeria. Hence, the study will assess the level of maternal health literacy among internally displaced persons (IDP) camps in Northcentral, Nigeria, determine the factors that affects maternal health of internally displaced persons (IDP) camps in Northcentral, Nigeria and find out the challenges of maternal health on internally Displaced Persons (IDP) camps in Northcentral, Nigeria. Hence, the study is delimited to IDP camp in Benue State.

1.7 Limitations of the study

Like in every human endeavour, the researchers encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire, and interview), which is why the researcher resorted to a moderate choice of sample size. More so, the researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. As a result, the amount of time spent on research will be reduced.



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