IMPACT OF PARENTING STYLE ON THE EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE OF ADOLESCENTS
1.1 Background of the Study
Adolescence is a period of transition from childhood to adulthood. It is a period that the child encounters numerous problems from all areas of his growth and development such as physical, mental, social, psychological, cultural and spiritual growth problems. Such is the difficulties that confront the emerging child into adulthood that some psychologists that describes it as a period of “storms and stress”.This period varies from society to society as a result of cultural variations and level of modernization. Generally, adolescents period commences between ages of 11 or 12 years to18 or 21 years. Girls begin transition earlier than boys, about 11-12 years. Boys start between12-14 years. It is a fact to reckon with that the youngest mother in the world was 9 years old and in America, a 10 year old was able to deliver her baby, normally without surgical intervention.
The way parents discipline their children leads to deep and lasting consequences for the child’s emotional life. A harsh treatment has its implication and empathic understanding does too. Extant literatures on how parents treat their children shows some parents as being indifferent to their children while some display warmth (Goleman, 1998). According to Nihara,Tamiyasu and Yoshikazo (1987), the relationship between affective and emotional aspects of parental behaviour and the child’s emotional adjustment is family and culture specific. This brings to light the importance of the family as much learning occurs through interaction between a child and his family members especially the parents. The family is thus the bedrock for the growth of emotional intelligence. As Goleman (1995) rightly pointed out “family is our first school for emotional learning. A close emotional bonding and adequate communication between children and parents with clear specifications for behaviour can make children emotionally and socially competent, responsible, independent and confident”. Thus, emotional intelligence is closely associated with parenting.
Parenting refers to the aspects of raising a child and there are several styles often employed by parents to raise their children. Parenting style is therefore a psychological construct that is defined as standard strategies used by parents to bring up their children. Baumrind (1967, 1971, 1989, & 1991) in a series of studies identified three parenting styles namely authoritative, authoritarian and permissive. These three styles vary according to the degree of warmth and control exercised and is useful in understanding its contribution to the emotional well-being of children. Because parenting styles and practices predict so many developmental outcomes, it makes sense to believe that they also predict children’s emotional intelligence.
On the other hand Emotional intelligence is a conjoint of different abilities, and therefore, it has been presumed that it can be trained and perfected (Goleman, 1995). Through training, individuals are expected to develop positive behaviours and establish positive social relationships (Baron & Parker, 2000). Emotional intelligence also refers to the capacity for recognizing one's own feelings and those of others, for motivating ourselves and for managing emotions well in ourselves and our relationships. Unlike intelligence quotient (IQ) which changes little after adolescent years, emotional intelligence (EI) is largely learnt, is not fixed genetically or develops in early childhood but continues to develop and is predominantly environmentally determined (Goleman, 1995). Emotional intelligence has four branches including the ability to accurately perceive and express emotion, assimilate emotion into thought, understand emotion, and regulate emotions in the self and others (Mayer & Salovey, 1997).
The influence of parenting styles at adolescents‟ stage is very crucial. This is because parents play tremendous roles in adolescents‟ transition to adulthood. The family unit is considered as one of the most influential components of a child‟s development due to the fact that the family is the first source of growth of emotional intelligence (Sumari, Hussein, & Siraj, 2010). More specifically, parenting styles, discipline techniques, involvement with their children and the home environment have been shown to attract a child‟s emotional stability.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Despite the giant strides of Binet & Simon (1916) and other test experts, Gardner (1993, 2006) and Goleman (1995) among others argued that it is not intelligence quotient (IQ) but emotional intelligence (EQ) that determines one’s success in life. The person who is high on emotional intelligence is found to be better in handling the situations of life than one who has low levels of emotional intelligence. Since emotional intelligence is the ability to perceive, understand, and manage one’s emotion, it is thought to be a crucial determinant of a student’s behavioural disposition.
Baumrind, (1966) contended that parenting styles have strong effect on children’s emotional development. They have been found to influence children’s self-control (Baumrind 1966, 1967 &1995), sociability (Van den Boom, 1994), social competence (Kuczyinski and Kochaska, 1995, Hasan & Power, 2002), peer competence (Gottman, 1997, Pearson & Rao, 2003), depression symptomatology (Lempers, Clark Lempers & Simons, 1989) and coping strategies (Meesters & Muris, 2004). Parenting styles influence so many characteristics of children. Unfortunately, there is dearth of research in this area in Nigeria, especially among adolescents.Consequently, this study sought to find impact of parenting style on the emotional intelligence of adolescents.
1.3 Objective of the Study
The central objective of the study is to examine the impact of parenting style on the emotional intelligence of adolescents using in Okpanam community, Delta State as a case study. The specific objectives are:
1. Determine whether there is a significant relationship between parenting and emotional intelligence of adolescents
2. Identify the parenting styles practiced among parents in Okpanam community, Delta State
3. Ascertain the influence of parenting style on emotional intelligence of adolescents
1.4 Research Questions
In order to effectively investigate the problem of this research, the researcher formulated the following research questions:
i. Is there a significant relationship between parenting and emotional intelligence of adolescents?
ii. What are the parenting styles practiced among parents in Okpanam community, Delta State?
iii. What are the influence of parenting style on emotional intelligence of adolescents?
1.5 Statement of hypothesis
Ho: There is no significant relationship between parenting style and emotional intelligence of adolescents.
Ha: There is a significant relationship between parenting style and emotional intelligence of adolescents.
1.6 Significance of the study
The result of the study will be significant to adolescent‟s because the outcome of the study will help them to improve their emotional intelligence. It will also be significant to parents who have the responsibility of bringing up their adolescents. it will be significant to teachers who are responsible for imparting knowledge to the adolescents to improve on their method of teaching..It will be significant to interested readers who may stumble on this materials to further adolescents students elsewhere. Finally, it offers a reference for further research that might investigate the same variables.
1.7 Scope of the study
The study covers borders on the impact of parenting style on the emotional intelligence of adolescents. Hence the study will delimited to Okpanam community, Delta State.
1.8 Limitations Of The Study
In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, language barriers, and the attitude of the respondents. However, the researcher were able to manage these just to ensure the success of this study.
Moreover, the case study method utilized in the study posed some challenges to the investigator including the possibility of biases and poor judgment of issues. However, the investigator relied on respect for the general principles of procedures, justice, fairness, objectivity in observation and recording, and weighing of evidence to overcome the challenges.
1.9 Definition Of Terms
Parenting Style: A parenting style is a psychological construct representing standard strategies that parents use in their child rearing.
Adolescent: Adolescence is a transitional stage of physical and psychological development that generally occurs during the period from puberty to legal adulthood. Adolescence is usually associated with the teenage years, but its physical, psychological or cultural expressions may begin earlier and end later.