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A SURVEY STUDY ON THE NEED FOR BUILDING THE RESILIENCE AMONG INTERNALLY DISPLACED PERSONS IN NIGERIA

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A  SURVEY STUDY ON THE NEED FOR BUILDING THE RESILIENCE AMONG INTERNALLY DISPLACED PERSONS IN NIGERIA

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the study

Over the course of the previous decade, a significant number of individuals have experienced involuntary displacement from their residences, amounting to millions of people. The United Nations Refugee Agency (UNHCR) reports that the population of internally displaced persons (IDPs) within their own country is considerably larger than the number of individuals who migrate across international boundaries as refugees or asylum seekers (UNHCR, 2021). According to the United Nations Refugee Agency (UNHCR) in 2021, the global population of forcibly displaced individuals stands at around 82.4 million. Among this population, 55 million individuals are internally displaced persons (IDPs), with 48 million being a consequence of conflict and violence, while 7 million being a result of natural disasters, as reported by the Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre (IDMC) in 2020. It is evident that a significant proportion, around 50%, of Nigeria's population resides in conditions of poverty. The poverty rate in North East Nigeria is significantly greater, with over 80% of the population estimated to be living in poverty (MoH/WHO, 2017). These persons frequently experience marginalisation and a dearth of acknowledgment from the communities in which they reside. One of the most severe examples of malevolence involves imposing significant socio-economic hardships on individuals, such as inadequate access to nutrition, substandard housing, unemployment, societal biases, sexual misconduct, the exploitation of child labour, early marriages, and the subsequent increase in teenage pregnancies. In the contemporary era, individuals are faced with supplementary problems, including intimidation, humiliation, and other forms of social isolation. Furthermore, Adesote and Peters (2015) contend that the relocation of internally displaced individuals (IDPs) exacerbates the current strain on limited social resources within the areas where they are reestablished.

 Regrettably, the presence of insurgency and subsequent migration exacerbates an already unfavourable scenario. The destruction of individuals' social networks, which are crucial for their resilience in impoverished circumstances, has resulted in a heightened need on external aid due to the loss of modest wages obtained from their livelihood activities. The formidable development task of poverty reduction is further exacerbated in the face of prevailing conditions characterised by instability and relocation. The prioritisation of livelihoods is of utmost importance in facilitating the upliftment of households from poverty, as it serves as a catalyst for the self-sufficiency of various social assistance initiatives, including those pertaining to education and health. Promisingly, there has been a notable decline in the occurrence of new large-scale displacements since the height of the Boko Haram conflict in the mid-2010s, during which terrorists often uprooted several villages. The Nigerian government, in collaboration with several development partners, has been offering subsistence assistance to those impacted by the situation, addressing their immediate requirements for sustenance, housing, and water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH).             Contrarily, while the provision of subsistence support was an urgent requirement during the height of the crisis, there is now a pressing need for a transformation in the support framework.In accordance with the United Kingdom Department of International Development (UKAID) in 2011, disaster resilience can be defined as the capacity of nations, communities, and households to effectively navigate and adapt to various forms of adversity, including but not limited to seismic events, prolonged periods of aridity, or instances of violent conflict, while safeguarding their future prospects. inside the context of internal displacement, resilience encompasses the capacity of impacted people to effectively navigate and cope with the various alterations and consequences resulting from involuntary relocation, particularly in relation to their physical and mental health, overall welfare, and living circumstances, all of which occur inside the confines of their own nation.         According to Crawford et al. (2015), individuals who experience displacement for a duration of six months are most likely to be displaced for extended periods, often lasting three years or longer. These communities reside in various environments, such as camps that were originally designed to be transitory but frequently evolve into permanent settlements (Turner, 2016). In contrast to refugees, who are under the care of the international humanitarian community, internally displaced persons (IDPs) are largely seen as the responsibility of the national authorities in the afflicted nations (United Nations, 1998). Efforts and resources should be gradually redirected towards the development of resilience and provision of livelihood aid, with the aim of enabling internally displaced persons (IDPs) to achieve sustainable self-support.

1.2  Statement of the problem

It is no doubt that prolonged dwelling in displacement often results in adverse outcomes, including increased disease incidences, food insecurity, and mental health issues (Mubarak et al., 2016). Hence, all IDPs are vulnerable to long-term difficulties, which could last many years and beyond the crisis period. Recent agendas have, therefore, shifted from establishing traditional camps towards providing settlements that offer opportunities and resilient systems, which benefit affected populations, nations and humanitarian providers. his shift towards encouraging resilience in displacement settings demands alternative management and practices that facilitate effective transition to durable and sustainable solutions. (Idris, 2017)

 To improve displacement management, proactive support and structures that consider the affected populations' experiences are needed, and these require an understanding of different IDP resilience actions and IDP-led management approaches. IDP internal management approaches provide vital information which can enable supporting organisations to develop relevant programmes. More effective management, including self-reliance factors, is critical in any strategy aiming to avoid or address displacement situations and find durable, sustainable solutions (United Nations Refugee Agency (UNHCR), 2021). Self-reliant displaced populations are also more likely to achieve better durable solutions. Therefore, understanding the adopted management processes in camp settings would highlight factors that can support effective camp management.

Conversely, most displacement studies focus mainly on the needs, social determinants of health, and conflict effects, particularly in refugee settings. In contrast, studies on camp management are generally limited, and those specifically from the perspective of IDPs are lacking ( Ekezie et al., 2020). Considering the complexity of protracted displacement in most IDP situations, the lack of evidence on IDP internal management structures and systems highlights a critical gap in humanitarian crisis management. To address these knowledge gaps and understand IDP resilience strategies in camp settings, it is crucial to explore the need for building the Resilience among Internally Displaced Persons in Nigeria

1.3 Objective of the stud .

The broad objectives of this study is focused on the need for building the Resilience among Internally Displaced Persons in Nigeria. Other specific objectives:

i.          To examine key challenges encountered in IDP camp settlements

ii.        To ascertain the importance of building the Resilience among Internally Displaced Persons in Nigeria.

iii.      To investigate methods of of building the Resilience among Internally Displaced Persons in Nigeria.

1.4  Research Question

i.          What are the key challenges encountered in IDP camp settlements?

ii.        What are the importance of building the Resilience among Internally Displaced Persons in Nigeria?

iii.      What are the methods of building the Resilience among Internally Displaced Persons in Nigeria?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

Ho: There is no need for  building the Resilience among Internally Displaced Persons in Nigeria

Hi:  There is a significant need for building the Resilience among Internally Displaced Persons in Nigeria

1.6  Significance of the Study

Building resilience is central to the total adjustment of internal displaced persons. Findings of the also offers guidance on navigating the complexity of forced migration dynamics and how to support resolutions in displacement situations. The framework is intended to guide organisations in navigating the complexity of forced migration, encourage multi-level initiatives by recognising and reinforcing actions of individuals, households and communities, encourage partnerships with traditional and non-traditional actors, provide support to governments in affected countries towards taking responsibility in protecting and assisting affected populations, and encourage ways to optimise humanitarian, development, peace and security interventions.

 The findings in this study will also support effective planning for the PRDS four intervention levels: individual, household, community and systems. On the other hand, lack of prioritisation and exclusion of IDPs in camp and health management will lead to further neglect, need for more post-crisis responses, potential weakening of existing positive resilience actions, and limit broader efforts being made to resolve displacement challenges and up-hold IDP rights.Theoretically, the study will serve as reference material to student and other researchers in this field, provide useful information to the general public and provide useful educational materials in the libraries.

1.7  Scope of the study

The study only explored the experiences of IDPs dwelling in camp settings of Durummi IDP camp Abuja, thus exempting IDPs living in host communities who may have different resilience adaptations. Recognising that affected populations are not homogenous, how different communities have different needs and levels of vulnerability, and how displacement situations are not static events, observations in this study may not be generalisable to every IDP displacement settlement. Nevertheless, the high degree of saturation in the findings from different locations and camp types ensured the critical points related to the research aims were well covered.

1.8 Limitation of the study

During the course of the research,  few minor obstacles while conducting the study, just as in every scientific endeavour. Lack of literature on   building the Resilience among Internally Displaced Persons in Nigeria.   was a key barrier. Hence, locating the pertinent resources, books, or information and the data gathering procedure took a lot of effort and organization. Language was also a barrier as most persons  in Durummi IDP camp Abuja difficulties understanding the research instrument because it was presented in English Language, hence the use of limited sample size. Therefore accuracy of the result will totally base on the data provided to the researcher by the educated resident and the results of this study cannot be generalized for other North East state, leaving a space for further research. Time restrictions were also an issue because the researcher had to complete this research while still going to classes and performing other necessary educational tasks.  However all aspects were minimized in order to deliver the best results possible and ensure the success of the research, despite the limitations that were faced during the study.

1.9       Definition of terms

Internal displacement / Internally Displaced Persons: Internally displaced persons are "persons or groups of persons who have been forced or obliged to flee or to leave their homes or places of habitual residence, in particular as a result of or in order to avoid the effects of armed conflict, situations of generalized violence, violations of human rights or natural or human-made disasters, and who have not crossed an internationally recognized State border.

Resilience: Resilience is the ability to cope mentally and emotionally with a crisis, or to return to pre-crisis status quickly.



This material content is developed to serve as a GUIDE for students to conduct academic research



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