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1.1 Background of the study

Political patronage via the allocation of state posts is a widespread practise seen around the globe, whereby the ruling political party or parties distribute these positions. However, in the context of Africa, this practise has been shown to have a detrimental impact on institutional quality and performance. The term "CORE" refers to a central or fundamental aspect or element. It is often The website core.ac.uk provides access to a wide range of scholarly resources, including metadata, citation, and other related articles. The repository, which is affiliated with Landmark University, is the second one in the state. During the 1980s and 1990s, several African nations embraced a multiparty democratic model, which was characterised by the implementation of two separate governance systems (Smith, 2016). Several countries, including Mozambique, Gabon, Ghana, and Nigeria, have embraced a presidential system of governance influenced by the United States philosophy. Conversely, countries like South Africa, Zimbabwe, and Malawi have adopted a parliamentary system rooted in the Westminster governance tradition. Additionally, certain states such as Senegal, Cape Verde, and Namibia have implemented a hybrid model that combines elements from both systems of governance (Chukwudi, 2015). The aforementioned political transformations were instigated by political groups that were widely seen as movements advocating for emancipation at the time. Following the democratisation process, several African governments encountered a multitude of challenges, including substandard institutional quality, inadequate economic performance, unconstitutional government transitions, and political violence, among others. The substandard quality or underperformance of the state is attributed to several factors, one of which is political patronage (Chukwudi, 2015). It is important to acknowledge that the organisational frameworks of political parties may significantly influence the capabilities and functioning of state institutions, such as the legislature. The ongoing discourse within the field of public administration and political science revolves on the question of whether political patronage has a positive or negative impact on institutional performance or quality (Olorunmola, 2016). Various researchers provide competing theoretical theories on the correlation between political patronage and the economic success of the state. The origins of political godfatherism may be traced back to the colonial period, continuing through the age of independence, the military interregnum, and culminating in the restoration of democracy in Nigeria known as the fourth Republic in 1999, subsequent to the end of military rule. The prevalence of godfatherism inside the Nigerian democratic system raises significant concerns and falls short of expectations. This phenomenon arises from the observation that since the inception of this emerging democratic system on May 29, 1999, Nigerians have experienced pervasive political instability, which has posed a significant challenge to the principles of participatory democracy, peace, political stability, and the establishment of a robust democratic framework, primarily due to the influence exerted by political godfathers (Olorunmola, 2016). The predominant focus of scholarly work in the fields of political science and public administration has been on the examination of political patronage, with a notable emphasis on emerging countries, particularly the African continent. This is due to the fact that several African regimes in the post-colonial era have been criticised for exhibiting characteristics such as predatory behaviour, patrimonialism, lack of political alternatives, kleptocracy, and engaging in rent-seeking activities. Political patronage, also known as the political appointment system or cadre deployment in the Nigerian context, is often seen as morally objectionable and a detrimental aspect of democracy. It is closely linked to the malfunctioning of governance systems (Omilusi, 2016). Hence, political patronage is seen as a reciprocal association whereby a diverse range of commodities and services are exchanged between the political patron and the protégé. In every democratic context, the realm of politics and electoral competition need substantial financial resources, which are often provided either directly by the candidates themselves or by their sponsors. In the Nigerian context, those who offer financial support for the campaign expenses of their chosen candidates in exchange for political favours are often referred to as "Godfathers" (Omilusi, 2016). The lack of a robust system for political party finance in Nigeria has created an environment where various forms of private sponsorship have become viable (Ahar, 2015). Godfathers may be described as individuals who provide services and possess expertise in political intelligence. They also give financial support for political endeavours, which may include using tactics such as violence and manipulation, with the ultimate goal of ensuring the victory of their preferred candidates. In exchange for their assistance, godfathers expect to get negotiated benefits in a manner that resembles a cliental relationship (Ahar, 2015). The matter of political party funding is a recurring topic in modern democracies due to the significance and impact of financial resources in global politics (Ahar, 2015). The importance and need of accountability, openness, and justice within political parties are crucial elements for the functioning of any democratic system (Doublet, 2012). This phenomenon may be attributed to the growing apprehension among individuals about the financial affairs and transparency of political parties, which has been fueled by the prevalence of corrupt practises that have been well documented (Ahar, 2015). The emergence of godfatherism in the Nigerian context has been seen as a significant phenomena pertaining to the financial support of political parties and politicians.The focus of this study was to examine the impact of godfatherism on political financing in the Kenyan political space.

1.2 Statement of the problem

The issue of political patronage, particularly the dynamic between political patrons and their protégés, has attracted considerable attention from scholars and continues to be an area of active academic investigation. The interrelation and divergence between the notions of political godfather and governance have garnered considerable academic interest, as researchers strive to grasp their fundamental character, nature, origins, and impact on Kenya's democratic framework. Academic scholars have undertaken several efforts to provide clear definitions, classifications, evaluations, and measurements of the political godfather phenomenon. As a consequence, a significant body of academic literature has emerged, with the ongoing objective of shedding light on its causative factors, processes, and constraints. In recent times, Kenya has encountered a substantial predicament in its political growth, prompting a surge in scholarly investigations and proposals on the underlying factors of this crisis and prospective remedies (Bello, 2017). The current dominant patterns of analytical expositions have garnered considerable attention in both political and intellectual circles, resulting in a contrasting and critical analysis of the impact of godfatherism on the political environment of Kenya. Nevertheless, the actual data has consistently shown that the application of this concept has mostly resulted in instances of democratic shortcomings and calamities. The present circumstances include the exclusion of competent applicants for political and appointive positions, leading to the installation of persons lacking in qualifications. The overarching experience has been marked by many forms of adversity, including pain, misery, poverty, destitution, and condemnation, mostly attributed to insufficient performance and subpar delivery of services by privileged persons. Once again, the whole of the circumstance has centred on the development of a political culture distinguished by uncritical conformity and the perpetuation of a sense of impotence. Hence, the need to examine Impact of godfatherism on political financing in the Kenyan political space.

1.3       Objective of the study

The broad objective of the study is to examine the impact of godfatherism on political financing in the Kenyan political space. The specific objectives is as follows

i.                    Assess the cause of godftherism in the Kenyan political space.

ii.                  Examine the impact of godfatherism on the financing of elections in Kenya

iii.                Find out the effects of godfatherism on the political development of Kenya.

1.4       Research Questions

The following questions have been prepared for the study

i.          What are the cause of godftherism in the Kenyan political space?

ii.        What are the impact of godfatherism on the financing of elections in Kenya?

iii.      What are the effects of godfatherism on the political development of Kenya?

1.5       Significance of the study

The findings of the study is significance is significant to every citizens who aspire to get involved in politics as they will be exposed to the dangers godfatherism pose in the development of a country.

The findings of the study will be significant to the acacdemic community as it will contribute to the existing literature.

1.6       Scope of the study

The study focuses on the impact of godfatherism on political financing in the Kenyan political space. Hence, the study will assess the cause of godftherism in the Kenyan political space, examine the impact of godfatherism on the financing of elections in Kenya and find out the effects of godfatherism on the political development of Kenya

1.7       Limitation of the study

Like in every human endeavour, the researchers encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire, and interview), which is why the researcher resorted to a moderate choice of sample size. More so, the researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. As a result, the amount of time spent on research will be reduced

1.8       Definition of terms

Godfatherism:  refer to wealthy and powerful figures who exert political influence behind the scenes while often remaining out of the 

political financing: Political finance covers all funds that are raised and spent for political purposes.

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  • Methodology: available

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