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CERVICAL CANCER SCREENING: AN EVALUATION OF ITS RELEVANCE TO FEMALE UNDERGRADUATE STUDENT OF OF ALVAN IKOKU FEDERAL COLLEGE OF EDUCATION OWERRI, IMO STATE

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CERVICAL CANCER SCREENING: AN EVALUATION OF ITS RELEVANCE TO FEMALE UNDERGRADUATE STUDENT OF  OF ALVAN IKOKU FEDERAL COLLEGE OF EDUCATION OWERRI, IMO STATE 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background Of The Study

Cervical cancer is the most prevalent gynaecological cancer among women globally. accounting for 13% of all female cancer infections and a significant cause of cancer-related mortality (WHO 2018). As per the World Health Organisation, it is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths among women across the globe, with an estimated 570,000 to 700,000 cases anticipated to be diagnosed between 2018 and 2030 (Shanta, 2021). Unexpectedly, the authors disclosed that a considerable proportion of the impacted females are younger females. Approximately 85 percent of these incidents transpired in nations with sophisticated technological infrastructure. Nevertheless, research indicates that developed nations bear a lighter burden than low and middle-income countries. According to a global report from 2012, cervical cancer claimed the lives of 266,000 women, or the equivalent of one woman per two minutes (Shanta, 2021). 

Sub-Saharan Africa exhibits a significantly higher mortality rate of 22.5 per 100,000 individuals, in contrast to the comparatively lower mortality rates observed in Western Asia, Western Europe, and Australia (PATH 2000). As a result, the American Cancer Society anticipated that the number of cervical cancer diagnoses and fatalities in the United States would rise to 12,360 and 4020, respectively. Cervical cancer was found to be more prevalent among women living with HIV, particularly in Eastern and Southern Africa, where the incidence rate is estimated to be over 20 cases per 100,000 inhabitants (Hyacinth 2018). 

Fortunately, early detection and screening for cervical cancer have been linked to a reduction in mortality and prevention of the disease (Karyari et al., 2021). This was corroborated by a researcher in Nigeria, Nwosu and Ana (2022), who stated that cervical cancer could be eradicated via preventive screening and early detection of precancerous lesions. An analogous finding was reported in China, suggesting that CCS, in addition to HPV antibodies and HPV DNA testing, could be employed to reduce the incidence of cervical cancer (Sankaranarayanan et al. 20221). 

Notwithstanding the presence of cervical screening services in select Nigerian hospitals, a mere 8.9% of female students in the country reported undergoing cervical cancer screening, notwithstanding their knowledge of the services (Shrestha et al 2019). Despite the fact that the majority of studies have identified a considerable level of awareness regarding cervical cancer among female students, the participation rate in screening programmes for this population is reportedly low (Shrestha et al 2019). The primary obstacle is that the majority of female pupils engaged in behaviours that increase the risk of CC in women, such as premarital sexual activity. Therefore, a number of Nigerian researchers (Kyari et al., 2021) have recommended that University Health Services devise methods to increase the interest of female students in CCS. Hence the researchers in this current study aim to explore on cervical cancer screening: an evaluation of its relevance to female undergraduate student of  of Alvan Ikoku federal college of education Owerri, Imo state .

Statement Of The Problem

Cervical cancer poses a significant global health burden on women (Ibekwe et al., 2020). According to the World Health Organization/International malignancy Organisation (2018), it is the second most prevalent malignancy among women in Africa and among women aged 15 to 44. Despite the fact that cervical cancer is preventable, a significant number of women continue to perish due to late-stage detection. Screening for cervical cancer is a universally recognised method of early detection that effectively mitigates the disease's associated morbidity and mortality. The protracted period of transition from a premalignant cervical lesion to cervix cancer provides opportunities for timely identification and efficacious management. As stated by Araoye (2019). 

Nonetheless, despite the significant prevalence of cervical cancer in developing nations, the majority of tertiary institutions in these countries have yet to adopt population-based cervical cancer screening programmes that have been effectively organised. This is largely attributable to women's marginalisation, poverty, and inadequate infrastructure and resources. Consider Ibekwe et al. (2020). As a result of the absence of a standardised screening system for precursor lesion detection in the majority of developing nations, mortality rates associated with cervical cancer are utilised to quantify the disease's severity. 

Furthermore, it was observed by the authors that screening protocols in Nigeria are deemed insufficient, as a mere 2.4% of the study participants had undertaken a pap smear. Additionally, it was found that HR-HPV 16, 18, 45, 35, and 52 were the most prevalent human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes among women in Nigeria. While the expense associated with Pap tests remains undisclosed, visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) was estimated to cost between $4.93 and $14.75 (Araoye 2019). Similarly, cryotherapy was a treatment option for cervical cancer, with expenses ranging from $47.26 to 84.48.

1.3 Objectives Of The Study

The primary objective of this study is to examine cervical cancer screening: an evaluation of its relevance to female undergraduate student of  Alvan Ikoku federal college of education Owerri, Imo state. Other objectives of this study are:

Determine female student level of awareness of cervical cancer screening in Alvan Ikoku federal college of education Owerri, Imo state.

Ascertain the relevance of cervical cancer screening among female student of Alvan Ikoku federal college of education Owerri, Imo state.

Identify the factors affecting the acceptance of cervical cancer screening among female student of Alvan Ikoku federal college of education Owerri, Imo state.

1.4 Research Questions

The following questions have been prepared for the study.

What is the level of awareness of cervical cancer screening among female student in Alvan Ikoku federal college of education Owerri, Imo state?

What are the relevance of cervical cancer screening among female student of Alvan Ikoku federal college of education Owerri, Imo state?

What are the factors affecting the acceptance of cervical cancer screening among female student of Alvan Ikoku federal college of education Owerri, Imo state?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

Ho:  Cervical cancer screening is of no relevance to female student of Alvan Ikoku federal college of education Owerri, Imo state. 

Ha:  Cervical cancer screening is of relevance to female student of Alvan Ikoku federal college of education Owerri, Imo state. 

1.6 Significance Of The Study

The information gathered will help policy makers to plan and implement necessary interventions that will enable female student to have good knowledge of cervical cancer and provide access to cervical cancer screening services within the communities. Hence, this study was conducted in tertiary institution to assess the importance of cervical cancer screening among female student of ECWA college of health technology Kagoro, Kaura Local Government Area of Kaduna State. Finally, this study will serve as an existing material for future reference and further research.

1.7 Scope Of The Study

This study will focus on the the importance of cervical cancer screening among female student of ECWA college of health technology Kagoro, Kaura Local Government Area of Kaduna State. Hence, This study will only focus on  ECWA college of health technology Kagoro, Kaura Local Government Area of Kaduna State

1.8  Limitation of the study

This study was constrained by a number of factors which are as follows:

Just like any other research, ranging from unavailability of needed accurate materials on the topic under study, inability to get data

Financial constraint , was faced by  the researcher ,in getting relevant materials  and  in printing and collation of questionnaires

Time factor: time factor pose another constraint since having to shuttle between writing of the research and also engaging in other academic work making it uneasy for the researcher.

1.9 Definition of terms

Cervical cancer:  a type of cancer that occurs in the cells of the cervix — the lower part of the uterus that connects to the vagina.

Cervical  screening:  for  the  purpose  of  this  study  refers  to  early  detection  of  pre-cancerous lesions through a Papanicolaou (Pap) smear.


This material content is developed to serve as a GUIDE for students to conduct academic research



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