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### DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF BASIC STATIC AND DYNAMIC BALANCING MACHINE

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ABSTRACT

This work is an attempt to evolve a means for statically and dynamical balancing of mechanical components. This will no doubt evolve greater success in ensuring sound fabrication of our local machine and ensuring that life span of such machine is prolonged since vibration will be reduced to the bearest minimum.

Every wheel and its shaft have to be in a state of balanced, two mating shaft in rotation have to be in a state of static and dynamic balance. This is because unbalance condition produce centrifugal force which increase as the speed of the machine increase, causing damage to machine parts.

To achieve the aim of static and dynamic balancing, various design alternatives for achieving the design solution were synthesized and a choice of economic method which will satisfy the objective was made. Based on the principle guiding the performance of the machine, the dimension and size of the various components was were established and correctly selected and the basic static and dynamic apparatus was fabricated and after testing it was found to satisfy the objective.

CHAPTER ONE

1.0       Introduction

1.1              Objective

1.2              Scope of the Project

CHAPTER TWO

2.0       Literature Review

2.1              What is Balancing

2.2              Type of Unbalance

2.2.1        Static Unbalance

2.2.2         Couple Unbalance

2.2.3         Dynamic Unbalance

2.3              Balancing Equipments

CHAPTER THREE

3.0       Specification of Problem/Synthesis of Solution and Theory of Design

3.1              Background Information/Objective

3.2              Definition

3.3              Condition of Use

3.4              Characteristics

3.5              Performance

3.6              Reliability

3.7              Synthesis of Solution

3.8              Theory of Design

3.8.1         Machine Element and Forces

3.8.2         Balancing of  Rotating Masses

3.8.3         Out of balance masses in a common transverse Plane

3.8.4         Out of Balance Masses in Different Transverse Plane

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0       Design Calculation of Basic Static and Dynamic Balance Machine

4.1              Approximate Weight of the Balancing Weight

4.2              Force Analysis on Shaft

4.3              Shear Force (SF) Calculation

4.4              Bending Moment Calculation

4.5              Shaft Design

4.6              Motor Belt Analysis

4.7              Bearing Selection

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0       Fabrication Procedure/Material Selection/Principle of Operation and Cost Analysis

5.1              Assembly Process

5.2              Material Selection

5.3              Principle of Operation

5.4              Cost Analysis

5.5              Conclusion and Recommendation

Appendix

CHAPTER ONE

1.0       INTRODUCTION

Power transmission in engineering is accomplished by the use of shafts bearings, pulleys, belts, rollers, gears, couplings, etc. Most machine members are linked or interconnected with one another before this power transmission can be effective.

Misalignment or out of balance of shafts or any of these machine members results in excessive viberation which is transmitted to other members and down to the foundation bolt and therefore in----- fatigue stress on the members. Fatigue, probably, is responsible for over 70% of failure of engineering component in operation. Misalignment in shafts and bearing causes excessive load. High speed bearing of aircrafts  that may operate at over 20,000 rpm may become catastrophic if there be any unbalance of the members. Out of balance of machine members creates serious problems on the functionality and durability and machine members and on the machine in general.

It is therefore, with the understanding of he sensitivity of balancing in the design of mechanical components and the need to put balancing into consideration in the fabrication of our local machines, the view to determine the level of out of balance and the subsequent balancing of these machine members that necessitated the idea of designing and constructing a Basic Static and Dynamic Balancing Apparatus of this nature.

1.1       OBJECTIVES

The objective of this project is to design, construct and test a basic static and dynamic balancing apparatus as one of the ways to prevent premature failure of engineering components due to fatigue loading.

1.2       SCOPE OF THE PROJECT

The basic and dynamic balancing machine covers the fundamental exploits of knowledge to design and construct and static  and dynamic balance for any mechanical member since each machine components has its own balance depending on its bulkiness. The basic principle of construction lies on the one chained in our construction. This construction gives illumination for the construction of production and maintenance balance. It also serves as a means of demonstrating static and dynamic balancing in laboratories of higher learning.

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