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This write up outlines the design and fabrication of  wood lathe machine. This type of lathe is capable of creating different wood designs using the cheapest available material and method.

To achieve functional and efficient wood lathe of  this kind, we analyzed as well as synthesized the different possible design solutions and concepts.

The principle of turner is puts into consideration the case of its production, main finance and services, values durability , reliability and appearance of the machine.

Finally, the parts were assembled and the machine test run. To ensure the achievement of best performance, iterative procedures were carried out. The material, labour and overhead costs were determined to get the production cost of a prototype.  


Title page





Table of contents.

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

1.1 Objectives

1.2 Literature Review

1.3 Trend

1.4 Statement of Problem

1.5 Purpose of Study

1.6 Scope of Work

Chapter Two

2.0 Synthesis

2.1 Theory of Design

2.2 Materials Selection

2.3 Analysis

2.4 Resolution of Forces

2.5 Reaction, Force and Moment Digrams

2.6 Maximum Shear and Bending Stresses

Chapter  Three

3.0 Assembly Procedure

3.1 Testing and Evaluation

3.2 Operational /Safety Guide

3.3 General Maintenance

Chapter Four

4.0 Cost Analysis

4.1 Material Cost

4.2 Labour Cost

4.3 Overhead Cost

4.4 Summary of Costs

Chapter Five

5.0 Conclusion

51. Recommendations

52. References



The wood lathe machine is introduced to lessen the human suffering and to improve economical and technological standard, and for years now Nigeria recognized that she was economically and technological poor and has been economically dependents on the western world for survival in terms of  technology. To dis-encourge this importation of  technological equipment placed embarge on the  importation of certain goods and this inspired our people to recognized indigenous  technology though our fore father used axe, cutlass and some other sharp tools fro designing woods.

But, as time goes on, technologist introduced wood lathe machine, which comes in various designs and models as technology improves. Thus , the importance  of wood lathe cannot be over emphasized. It is the acknowledgement of this fact that led to the design of wood lathe machine, even though this project of design and fabrication of wood lathe machine is a copied design, we tried to improve more on this machine so that it can design wood with little or no stress, utilizing the available material in order to reduced cost for production purposes and durability being of utmost important.  


The main objectives of this project are to:

i. Use available local materials in fabrication

ii. Achieve a reduction in the cost of production of the machine.

iii. Provide a life engine in the workshop which students could use for exhibition thereby creating awareness for, and encouragement of indigenous technology.

iv. Reduce the labour cost and time spent on using hand tools for wood design.

v. Increase productivity and creativity.

The vital need for the fabrication of a wood lathe is significant in the much delay and time as well as energy wasted in using simple hand tools to carry out jobs. Moreover, the cost of importation of a lathe machine, is too high for an average user.

Also, wood lathe machine will helps to reduce the cost and consequently increase the rate of production and craftsman’s skill.


Basically, along with stone, mud and animal parts, wood was certainly one if the first materials worked by primitive human-beings. Indeed, the development of wood lathe machine was closely tied to the development of increasingly greater degrees of skill in design of a wood. Thus, it was acknowledge of these facts brought about the design of wood lathe.

The recent research indicates that wood turning may be about 3000years old, originating, presumably simultaneously in Great Britain, Italy and by inhabitants of Crimea.

In the good old days, there was much art and much less speed than we get today. Old spindle and bowl lathes used various sources of power, but often had low end speed   of 75RPM. There were treadle models and pedal models with pedals designed to work as they did on the velocipedes wood lathes. Lathes come in a variety of sizes and styles, which tends to force the beginning  turner to start out specialized  in some manner, though the smallest lathes are “Jewelers lathes” which are small enough that they may be held on one hand. Although the work piece machined on a Jeweler’s lathes are metal, Jeweler’s lathes differ from all other working lathes in that the cutting tools are hand held, not fixed to a cross slides.

Lathe machine come in variety of models amongst which are bench lathes which can sit on a bench or table, CNC lathes that are controlled by a computer, vertical lathes i.e lathe with vertical axis. Also,  there are some lathes that are equipped with indexing plates, profiled cutters, spiral or helical guide, etc. so as to enable ornamental turning.

Thus, the machine from its inception till date have under gone series of improvement, some  parts  have been simplified, modified or eliminated where found not absolutely necessary, hence different models exist in the market.

What remains indisputable in all model is the fact that the same principle of machining is employed.

The wood lathe, just like other types of lathe can be used to carry out a wide range of machining operations. It saves time and does not need much skill as in the use of hand tools.


Below are the dimensions and specifications as regards the fabricated wood lathe.

Total length of the machine 1680mm

Total height  of the machine 1200mm

Width of machine bed 240mm

Angle of inclination of the tail stock 900

The electric motor RFM 2820RPM

Frequency 50HZ

Power 2.2KW

Capacity 3HP

Voltage   220v

Current 10AMP

The space between the bed rails

Diameter of headstock pulley 240mm

Headstock shaft diameter 38mm

Diameter of motor pulley 70mm

Width of tail stock (H-chanel) 200mm

v- Belt A-59

Maximum length of work 1100mm

Minimum length of work 300mm

Maximum diameter of work 300mm.


The continuous quest to have the problems of man and his growing needs solved has led to the  establishment  of factories and other industries, which necessitates an intermediate technology.

However, simple hand tools that were in use before are no longer efficient for mass production. In the same manner, the  importation of wood lathe machine, as a substitute, for these tools, likewise has failed to meet man’s insatiable needs because of our unstable economy.    

Then, there comes the need for urgent attention to a better and locally made wood lathe machine.


The design and fabrication of wood lathe machine aims among other things at justifying a simple  way  of scarping  and cutting  off wood at its best  

This material content is developed to serve as a GUIDE for students to conduct academic research

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