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THE ROLE OF MASS MEDIA DOCUMENTARY ON CERVICAL CANCER KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PRACTICES AMONG MOTHERS IN EDO STATE

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THE ROLE OF MASS MEDIA DOCUMENTARY ON CERVICAL CANCER KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PRACTICES AMONG MOTHERS IN EDO STATE

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the study

Breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer diagnosed in women worldwide and the world's second most common cancer. (2011) Azenha, Bass, Caleffi, Smith, Pretorius, Durstine, and Perez Its attacks on women are three times higher in developed countries than in developing countries, but the death toll is higher in developing countries (Azenha et al, 2011). It is, however, a cancer that originates in breast tissue and is thus classified as a cancer of the glandular tissue of the breast. Despite the fact that the illness is prevalent in both male and female patients, women have a hundred times the incidence of males. Breast cancer is defined as a proliferation of breast cells characterized by aberrant cell growth and division leading to tissue death via the filtration of malignant cells into the bloodstream (Medical Women's Association of Nigeria, 2011). Breast cancer, on the other hand, is often identified by a painless lump or mass of tissues known as tumors, with genetic abnormalities and age being among the risk factors (Blugs, Cummings, Spencer, and Palladino, 2009). Breast cancer may be one of the earliest known kinds of malignant tumors in women in Egypt, according to King(2006). It dates back to about 1 600BC. It was originally seen and reported as breast tumors or ulcers. During that period, Edwin, Papyrus documented eight occurrences of breast cancers or ulcers treated by cauterization since "there is no cure." A equipment called 'Firedrill' was used to perform the cauterization therapy. Physicians have been describing comparable situations in their clinics for generations, with the same result. Doctors didn't discover a relationship between breast cancer and lymph nodes in the armpit until the 17th century, when they gained a better grasp of the circulatory system. However, in an attempt to rescue women from breast cancer, French surgeon Jean Lewis Petit (1674–1750) and Scottish surgeon Benjamin Bell (1749–1805) were the first to remove lymph nodes, breast tissue, and chest muscle. William Stewart, who began conducting mastectomies in 1882, continued their excellent work. The Halsted radical mastectomy often included the removal of both breasts, as well as the lymph nodes and the underlying chest muscle. This typically resulted in long-term suffering and incapacity, but it was considered vital to prevent the cancer from returning. As a result, radical mastectomy remained the norm until the 1970s, when a new knowledge of metastasis led to the recognition of cancer as both a systemic and a localized sickness  (King,2006). Furthermore, the incidence and mortality of breast cancer, which is on the rise globally, is a serious public health concern. Breast cancer accounts for 10.45 percent of all cancer incidence among women, according to the World Health Organization and the International Union Against Cancer (2005), making it the second most frequent kind of non-skin cancer (after lung cancer) and the fifth most common cause of cancer fatalities. In 2004, for example, the disease claimed the lives of 579,000 people over the globe. This is obvious in Pakistan, an Asian nation with the highest breast cancer incidence of any Asian country, with 40,000 fatalities each year. As a result, it is estimated that 35% of Pakistani women will get breast cancer at some time in their life. Beyond the age of 40, one in every five women gets the illness, and after the age of 50, 77 percent of women have invasive breast cancer. (Pielle, 2005). It was also revealed that it is the most common cancer in African-American women, with a one in eight lifetime probability of getting a tumor/lump and a three percent chance of dying from the illness (King,2006).

The popular media, via a range of media channels (online, print, television, and so on), plays an important role in shaping the public's understanding and perception of cancer in high-income and many developing nations (Parkin., 2005). The media claims to deliver targeted, relevant, and readily accessible information, allowing the general public to identify relevant risk factors and adopt healthy lifestyles and choices, as well as encourage cancer research (directly benefiting charitable funders). As a result, the time lag between symptoms and diagnosis, as well as survival rates, may be adjusted. Positive attitudes about the media's involvement in cancer, on the other hand, have been critically questioned. Scholars believe that media awareness initiatives should be the cornerstone of every health communication program. This is due to the many communication approaches and channels that might be utilized to raise awareness and understanding about health issues and solutions. "Media awareness campaigns," according to King (2006), are "various, complex, carefully planned and strategically built media symphonies aimed to enhance awareness, educate, or modify behavior among target audiences." As a result, media awareness campaigns are pre-planned communication strategies tailored to certain target groups in order to combat illnesses and health issues that adversely impact persons in society. Intriguingly, Okobia (2006) claims that media awareness campaigns are also known as information campaigns, and that they are designed to promote public knowledge of health issues with the goal of pushing individuals to avoid them. The efficient use of media awareness campaigns to promote cancer care acknowledges the existing and prospective roles of print media and interpersonal channels, according to Okobia (2006). Print media channels are also seen to have the ability to reach and enlighten huge audiences, although interpersonal methods have proved more effective in driving attitudinal change. In light of this, media campaigns have been regarded as critical techniques for getting much-needed swift and prompt cooperation from women in the fight against breast cancer. In other words, successful media efforts encouraging women to present breast cancer early will make the 90% likelihood of survival a reality. As a result, media campaigns may be thought of as a set of actions intended to influence people's attitudes and ideas. It might be for a short time or for a long time. They are often used to expose a huge number of people to messages through current media such as billboards, radio, television, magazines, newspapers, the internet, and so on.  (Wakefield, Loken, & Hornik, 2010). It is therefore believed that if media campaigns are properly designed and executed, following ‘Coffrnan's (2002) characteristics of effective campaigns of delivering understandable and credible messages, capturing the right audience attention, and dissemination of messages capable of influencing or causing a change in audience attitudes, media campaigns will form a major link in the communication process.

1.2 Statement of the problem

Cancer is one of the most devastating illnesses that have ever afflicted humanity. According to the World Health Organization (WHO, 2005), cancer accounts for around 12.5 percent of all fatalities worldwide, which is more than the combined percentages of deaths caused by HIV/AIDS, TB, and malaria. As a result, the rise in breast cancer attacks and fatalities in Kampala metropolitan raises an important issue about the impact of cancer awareness initiatives on people's poor reactions to early cancer detection. In light of the foregoing, and given the confirmation of the Nigerian Medical Women's Association (2011) that cancer, particularly breast cancer, can be prevented at an early stage, the researcher critically evaluates the effectiveness of media campaign programs on cancer in causing quick and prompt positive changes in people's behavior in performing Breast Self-Examination and Clinical Breast examination for the reduction in their mortality rate.

1.3 Objective of the study

The primary objective of the study is as follows

1)        To evaluate the influence of mass media in the documentary of cervical cancer among Edo women.

2)        To examine the attitude of Edo women towards the documentary of cervical cancer.

3)        To find out if mothers in Edo state have knowledge on what cervical cancer is all about.

4)        To find out strategies that can be used by mass media to increase the awareness documentary of cervical cancer.

1.4 Research Questions

The following questions have been prepared for the study.

1.        What is the level of influence of mass media in the documentary of cervical cancer among Edo women?

2.        What is the attitude of Edo women towards the documentary of cervical cancer?

3.        Do mothers in Edo state have knowledge on what cervical cancer is all about?

4.        What are the strategies that can be used by mass media to increase the awareness documentary of cervical cancer?

1.5 Significance of the study

This study examines the role of Mass Media Documentary on Cervical Cancer Knowledge, Attitude and Practices among Mothers in Edo State.

This study will be significant to the national broadcasting commission and also to the several media houses in Nigeria as it will expose them to the need of doing more in creating awareness of cervical cancer among Nigerian women.

This study is of benefit to the academic community as it will contribute to the existing literature on cervical cancer and also serve as guide to student who may want to further research on the topic

1.6 Scope of the study

This study focuses on The role of Mass Media Documentary on Cervical Cancer Knowledge, Attitude and Practices among Mothers in Edo State. Also the study will evaluate the influence of mass media in the documentary of cervical cancer among Edo women. The study will further examine the attitude of Edo women towards the documentary of cervical cancer. More so, the study find out if mothers in Edo state have knowledge on what cervical cancer is all about. Lastly, the study find out strategies that can be used by mass media to increase the awareness documentary of cervical cancer. Hence the study will be delimited to Edo state

1.8       Limitation of the study

This study was constrained by a number of factors which are as follows:

Just like any other research, ranging from unavailability of needed accurate materials on the topic under study, inability to get data

Financial constraint , was faced by  the researcher ,in getting relevant materials  and  in printing and collation of questionnaires

Time factor: time factor pose another constraint since having to shuttle between writing of the research and also engaging in other academic work making it uneasy for the researcher

1.9       Definition of terms

Mass media:  criminal activity has received heavy coverage in the mass media

Documentary: consisting of or based on official documents.

Cervical cancer:  a type of cancer that occurs in the cells of the cervix — the lower part of the uterus that connects to the vagina.



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