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EFFECT OF JOB STRESS ON EMPLOYEES’ PRODUCTIVITY

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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1Background of the Study

The human resource is the most vital component that influences the productivity in an organization. In this epoch of dynamic changes and intricacies, employees are rightly called the source of attaining and sustaining competitive edge of any organization. However, they suffer from numerous problems like stress and dissatisfaction in their workplace and job environment which has serious implications for employee performance (Zafar, Ali, Hameed and Ilyas, 2015).

The phenomenon of stress is becoming increasingly globalized and affects all countries and all professions. Occupational stress is a term used to define ongoing stress that is related to the workplace. The stress may have to do with responsibilities associated with the work itself, or caused by conditions that are based in the corporate culture or personality conflict. As with other forms of tension, occupational stress can eventually affect both physical and emotional well being if not managed effectively (Chovwen, 2013).

Stress can be positive (Eustress) or negative (Distress). Eustress results can be stimulating that enhances work performance and positively encourages workers to make efforts. Distress results in negative effects over worker’s health and performance. Employee performance is adversely affected by workplace stress (Fogarty cited in Zafar, Ali, Hameed and Ilyas, 2015). This in turn reduces the effectiveness of the employees and organization (Jimmieson et al., 2004). Such job stress often results in workplace accidents (Moore, 2000).

Specifically, job stress can affect a person’s health when the workplace stressors exceed an employee’s ability to have control over or cope with the situation. It can result from factors involving innovation of new technology, work shift, deadlines, longer working periods, job security, commuting to work, hostile working environment and job description. A boring and monotonous job, for instance, can make an employee feel distressed, thus, stifling motivation to perform well, whereas a challenging job can make an employee experience eustress, and enhance motivation to perform well (Chovwen, 2013).

The complete absence of stress is death. Stress therefore is inevitable in life. Every human person experience a level of stress. Stress is an ineffective and unhealthy reaction to change. It describes a force, which affects human beings physically, mentally, emotionally, socially and spiritually. It is the body’s response to undesirable mental, physical, emotional, social or environmental demands. Stress describes physical trauma, strenuous exercise, metabolic disturbances and anxiety whichchallenges the body’s homeostasis (well being) (Akinboye, Akinboye and Adeyemo cited in Nweke, 2015).

Hence, the undertaking of this research study will examine the impact of job stress on employees’ productivity in Zenith Nig. Plc.

1.2Statement of Problem

Job stress is very often a feature that is prominent in work organizations. The banking industry is the worse hit. This has adverse effect on employees’productivity. Job stress can be experienced in any aspect of work situation such as extremes of heat, noise and light, too much or too little responsibilities. Job stress is associated with underemployment and over loaded with responsibilities outside ones area of specialization (Irene 2005). The problem of job stress is so ubiquitous and so severe that the United Nations has described it as a global epidemic with no occupational spread (Akinboye, Akinboye and Adeyemo 2002).

The major interest of employees in the banking industry is the ability to balance between the demands, stress, targets, heavy workload at workplace and the family responsibilities. The competing demands which are pronounced in work place and personal responsibilities at home often leads to role conflict.

Stress is not only linked to the mental capabilities or internalstate of mind, but it also affects the employees’ behavior (Groen, Wouters, & Wilderom, 2012). Stress builds thoughtsin employees’ mind, these thoughts can vary in theaccordance of situation and environments. All of these thoughts processed in the mind, can be either good or bad,develops the attitude, and then behavior. Behaviors areactions and can be observed by others. That is why so manyorganizations heavily rely on motivational theories to release the stress of employees and to enhance the attitude towardsinitiatives. Onthe other hand, if employees’ expectations are not met, they will for sure move towards the negative behavior and theirperformance will decline because of stress(Arshadi & Damiri, 2013).

Mental state or thoughts are responsible for shaping our feeling and emotions, which can also change the physical state of the employee; that is why the stressed employees are mostly unhealthy (Jamal, 2005). An employee with bad mental and physical state is for sure not able to give his/her best at the workplace that is why his/her job performance will be affected as well.

It is curious to observe that working in a bank is associated with stress. The challenge of meeting up with customers demands coupled with designated task of account balancing, data processing and evaluation of daily activities in the banking sector gives a serious concern. The ability of employees to cope with conflicts arising from their job demands is an issue of great concern. Scholars’ attention focused mainly on nature, consequences and coping of job stress with little attention on its causes. Also, the causes of job stress in the banking industry are areas which lack scholarly works. Therefore, this study is designed to fill this lacuna in organizational studies by exploring the impact of job stress on employees’ productivity in Zenith Nig. Plc.

1.3     Objectives of the Study

This being carried out with the following objectives:

        i.            To investigate the relationship between job stress and employees’ productivity.

     ii.            To examine the effect of occupational stress on employee’s job satisfaction.

   iii.            To investigate the effect of workplace stress on employees’ emotional stability

1.4    Research Questions

The study will be guided by the following research questions;

1.What is the relationship between job stress and employees’ productivity?

2.Does occupational stress have a significant effect on employee’s job satisfaction?

3.To what extent does workplace stress affect employees’ emotional stability?

1.5     Research Hypotheses

The following research hypotheses will be tested in the course of the study:

Hypothesis One:

Ho:      There is no significant relationship between job stress and employees’ productivity.

HI:There is a significant relationship between job stress and employees’   productivity.

Hypothesis Two:

Ho:      Occupational stress has no significant effect on employee’s job   satisfaction

HI:Occupational stress has a significant effect on employee’s job      satisfaction

Hypothesis Three:

Ho:  There is no significant relationship between workplace stress and employees’ emotional stability.

HI:There is a significant relationship between workplace stress and            employees’ emotional stability.


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