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The impact of family background on adolescent engagement in ritualism(a case study of Ogun State)
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1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The family is one of the most important institutions for the survival of any society. The family, as the primary unit in every civilization, is a heavenly educational institution tasked with socializing and spiritualizing the group members into prospective adults (Njama-Abang, 2006; Christian, 2005; Leshe, 1979). According to Eyo (2002), the family is a social institution governed by social standards. These rules serve to ensure the survival of family members and society as a whole. The family facilitates not just the process of procreation, but also the learning of values, attitudes, skills, and techniques specific to a culture (Kalu, 2008; Njama-Abang, 2006).
Family background appears to manifest itself in children's lives most prominently in social relationships, particularly with adolescents who have more economic resources (Harju, 2008). The family is not simply for procreation; it also promotes the learning of a culture's values, attitudes, information, skills, and procedures (Wattesubeag, 1973, Eyo, 2002 and Christian, 2005). According to Christian (2005), persons in the family are inextricably linked to one another, both by blood or marriage and by living together. Individuals in the family have a positive and negative influence on one another as a result of this. Similarly, Kalu (2005) proposed that it is not an exaggeration to argue that one's parental background effects one's social adjustment. This is to state that the adolescent student's parental background has a dual effect or influence on his or her social development.
Family background and material resources are used to foster a sense of togetherness (Pugh, 2009; Buckingham, 2011), and having similar resources bonds friends together (Hakovirta & Rantalaiho, 2012), particularly among adolescents (Croghan et al., 2006), both at school and in their spare time (Korkiamäki & Ellonen, 2011). Family prestige appears to confer social prestige and authority, whereas a lack of economic resources may result in shame, prejudice, and exclusion (van der Hoek, 2005; Walker, 2014). Adolescents from low-income homes are more likely than others to experience bullying and social exclusion (Attree, 2006), and some studies find a link between family background and adolescents engagement (Chiu 2015). Despite the fact that family background are not the sole factor influencing a person's sense of belonging and socialization, they do play a role. Family hierarchies cause guilt and stress, which have a negative impact on emotional and physical health, as well as self-esteem of adolescents. Individuals have been discovered to have a proclivity for developing self-perceptions that conform to, justify, and reproduce the hierarchy of the society in which they inhabit (Jost et al., 2004).
According to Imaobong (2002), Poverty, ignorance, bad parenting and lousy movies generate angry and rebellious children, and have been identified as important contributors to adolescent ritualism. In the last few years or so, our traditional norms have been seriously threatened by vanity or material life as displayed by various foreign media contents brought directly into the hearts of our children and wards via cable satellites, which we willingly purchase with our earnings as parents who want to keep up with the vogue. Historically, children have shown reverence for all adults in exchange for protection and adequate training and education. The collapse of family institutions is one of the causes of such degradation.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Vast numbers of crimes and cases of misconduct have been blamed on our youth and adolescent children (Imaobong, 2002). Many psychologists defined adolescent engagement as the ability to adapt to social activities, the ability to cope with predetermined standards of behavior, the ability to master challenges in interacting with one's environment and developing a good conscience, and the ability to deal appropriately with anxiety and conflict (Kalu, 2008; Delvega and Juada, 1998; Ozoemena, 2002).
However, the deterioration of society as a result of moral degeneration has its roots in the breakdown of family institutions, which has a detrimental impact on adolescents healthy engagement. As a result, fundamental laws such as thou shalt not kill, thou shalt not steal, thou shalt not advocate homosexuality, rape, incest, prostitution, truancy, and so on for material gain are broken.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The main objective of this study is to examine the impact of family background on adolescent engagement in ritualism (a case study of Ogun state). Other objectives of this study are:
i. To examine the extent family background influences adolescent engagement in ritualism.
ii. To examine the role of parents upbringing in adolescent engagement in ritualism
iii. To examine the role of family level of education in adolescent engagement in ritualism
iv. To examine the role of family religious beliefs in adolescent engagement in ritualism
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
i. To what extent does family background influence adolescent engagement in ritualism?
ii. Does parents upbringing play a role in adolescent engagement in ritualism?
iii. Does family level of education play a role in adolescent engagement in ritualism?
iv. Does family religious beliefs play a role in adolescent engagement in ritualism?
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study will be beneficial to the society as it will reveal the influence of family background on adolescent engagement in ritualism. It will also reveal the effects of parents upbringing, family level of education and family religious beliefs has on adolescents engagement in ritualism.
This study will serve as a material for researchers who may for one reason or the other carryout research on topics related the one under study.
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This study will be focusing on the impact of family background on adolescent engagement in ritualism. It will also be focusing on the extent family background influences adolescent engagement in ritualism, the role of family upbringing in adolescent engagement in ritualism and the role of family religious beliefs in adolescent engagement in ritualism.
This study will be using residents of Abeokuta, Ogun State as enrolled participants for the survey.
1.7 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
Like all human endeavour, this research work was not without some factors that tended to jeopardize the smooth completion of the study. One of the factors is on the fact that the period of time allowed for this work was short that the researcher did not have enough time to do a thorough job.
Also the researcher in the course of data collection, had to put in extra effort to interpreting interviews schedule of the respondents, some who fall within the in comprehensible age limit. Additionally, there were financial and transit constraints.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Impact: a marked effect or influence
Family background: set of social, economic, cultural, and welfare characteristics of a family, which has been proved by continuous multi-scale education research to be an influential factor in determining student achievement.
Adolescent: a young person in the process of developing from a child into an adult.
Ritualism: the regular observance or practice of ritual, especially when excessive or without regard to its function.
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