INVESTIGATION INTO THE IMPACT OF FLOODING ON NIGERIA'S SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
Background of the Study
Globally, flood has received a great deal of scholarly interest throughout the years, particularly in developing countries such as Nigeria. Although there are several types of environmental problems and issues that result, including soil degradation, greenhouse effect change, ozone depletion, drought, desertification and deforestation, industrial pollution, water contamination, and waste management. Howbeit floods are among the most prevalent and widespread. The conventional flood concept is the overflowing of a water body's riverbanks, which results in an uncontrolled spread of water that exceeds the water carrying capacity of the catchment region that surrounds the water body. This causes floods (Okorafor et al., 2015). Floods, like drought and desertification, are natural hazards that arise as a result of excessive hydrological (runoff) events, according to Danumah, Odai, and Saley (2016). According to Bello and Jeb (2016), flooding is the most common natural catastrophe, with the frequency of documented flood incidents growing dramatically over the previous 20 years. According to United Nations-Water (2011), there has been a dramatic increase in the number of persons killed or badly injured by flood catastrophes, which affect an estimated 520 million people globally each year, resulting in up to 25 000 deaths in a single year. Floods are widespread across the planet, according to a history of flood occurrences provided in NASA's Earth Observatory (EO), which was cited in Bello, & Jeb (2016), with the Northern Hemisphere and the Southern Hemisphere seeing the most extreme flooding. According to Bello and Jeb (2016), extreme rainfall in Brazil, Bolivia, and Peru during December 2006 to January 2007 caused major flooding and landslides in those nations.
Significantly, the essence of flood attention in study is always linked to its origins, the consequences of severe property damage and even irreparable loss of life, and the control methods. Flood is one of the key problems preventing Africa's population from overcoming poverty, and flood victims are typically urban poor (Adetunji and Oyeleye, 2018). A flood occurs when a watercourse overflows its banks and submerges adjacent regions. To add to this, Egbinola, Olaniran, and Amanambu (2015) define flood as an overflow of a body of water that submerges land. Flood, as defined by the European Union (2007) and Adetunji et'al (2015), is a temporary covering of land by water that was not previously covered by water. Flooding, according to Nelson (2018), is a natural result of stream flow in a constantly changing environment. Flooding to Nelson represents abnormally high rates of discharge, frequently resulting in inundation of land near to streams, and is generally produced by severe or protracted rains.
Surprisingly, many settlements in Nigeria's coastal region, particularly in the Niger-Delta zone and among other places, have weak drainage systems and are thus prone to floods. Flooding threatens an estimated 25 million people, or 28 percent of Nigeria's population, who live in the coastal zone (NCAR, 2012). Flooding poses a significant risk to riverside populations and floodplains, as well as significant impacts on the environment, including aquatic fauna and flora and bank erosion (Twumasi, Merem, Ayala-Silva 2017). Therefore, risk assessment is required in order to determine the likelihood of flood occurrence and its negative implications. According to Twumasi et al. (2017), many aspects such as vulnerability and exposures must be considered in the real evaluation of catastrophe scenarios and losses. Thus , flood risk is the result of flood dangers, susceptibility, and exposure of people, which necessitates an appropriate response in order to minimize or lessen the consequences of flood.
Statement of the Problem
In recent years, urban flooding has been identified as one of the most pressing and serious environmental concerns confronting municipal authorities in developing countries. Floods are the leading cause of catastrophe losses in Nigeria, according to the EM-DAT database (Komolafe et al., 2015b), and with the projected rise in rainfall intensity due to climate change, several river basins in the country are expected to flood. Among the factors responsible for flood disaster include indiscriminate dumping of refuse inside the stream, river channels, inside the surface drains, along the road side and dumping of municipal wastes on the flood plain (Sarah, 2007 and David, 2004). James, (2000) reported poor urbanization like construction of building along flood plains, large scale encroachment into the river flood plains and large scale road construction with excessive land reclamation which lead to flood disaster.The impacts on both individuals and communities can have social, economic and environmental consequences which may be negative or positive (Apan, Keogh, King, Thomas, Mushtaq & Baddiley, 2010). As reported by Ajayi, (2012), the immediate impacts of flooding include loss of human life, damage to properties, destruction of crops, loss of livestock, and deterioration of health conditions owing to waterborne diseases. As communication links and infrastructure such as power plants, roads and bridges are damaged and disrupted, some economic activities may come to standstill. People are forced to leave their homes and normal life is disrupted. Similarly, disruption to industry can lead to loss of livelihoods (Ajayi, 2012).Damage to public infrastructure affects a far greater proportion of the population than those whose homes or businesses are directly inundated by the flood. In particular, flood damage to roads, rail networks and key transport hubs, such as shipping ports, can have significant impacts on regional and national economies. Short-term downturns in regional tourism are often experienced after a flooding event. While the impact on tourism infrastructure and the time needed to return to full operating capacity may be minimal, images of flood affected areas often lead to cancellations in bookings and a significant reduction in tourist numbers. Flooding of urban areas can result in significant damage to private property, including homes and businesses.
Although these researchers have helped provide some information regarding flood, Moreover, relatively few studies have concentrated on impact of flood on Nigeria sustainable development. Upon this backdrop, this study seeks to investigation into the impact of flooding on Nigeria's sustainable development.
Objective of the Study
The broad objective of this study is focused on investigation into the impact of flooding on Nigeria's sustainable development. Other specific objectives includes:
To examine the extent of flooding event in Nigeria
To ascertain the causes of flood event in Nigeria
To establish whether flood event exert impact on sustainable national development
To investigate the implication of flooding Nigeria's sustainable development.
What is the extent of flooding event witnessed in Nigeria?
What are the causes of flood event witnessed in Nigeria?
Does flood event exert significant impact on sustainable national development?
What is the implication of flooding Nigeria's sustainable development?
Significance of the Study
Flood events in many capital cities in Nigeria, are mostly due to the poor consciousness of the inhabitants on environmental information, inadequate (or sometimes absolute lack) of spatial information on the flood prone areas, waste dump and construction of buildings (both commercial and residential, even public offices) on river channel without adequate measure for water flow. To this end, the study assessed land use land cover changes in the study area, examined the socio-economic and environmental impacts of the hazards on the study area, generated flood risk and vulnerability maps as well as flood hazard models of the area using the factor criteria such as soil, elevation, rainfall and land use; slope and drainage density of the basin and finally modelled river hazards by producing a river model of the main drainage channel in the area in order to predict its tendency to flood in the future. The output of this study can serve as policy and decision-making tools for future food hazard analysis, prevention and reduction plans at the research location.The study will contribute to general body of knowledge on integration modelling for flood risk locations and serve as reference material for scholars who desire conduct further research on this topic.
Scope of the Study
The scope of this borders on on investigation into the impact of flooding on Nigeria's sustainable development. The study will further discuss the extent of flooding event witnessed in Nigeria and the causes of flood event witnessed in Nigeria. The study is however delimited to Lokoja Local government Area, Kogi State
1.7 Limitation of the Study
This research project, like all human endeavors, had some challenges that threatened to derail the study's completion. One of the reasons is that the time allotted for this work was so limited that the researcher did not have enough time to complete the task thoroughly. During data collection, the researcher also had to put forth extra effort to understand the respondents' interview schedules, several of whom fell into the incomprehensible age group. Also, there were financial and transportation constraints to deal with. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire, interview).
1.9 Definition of Terms
Flood: A flood is an overflow of water that submerges land that is usually dry.
Impact: The strong effect or influence that something has on a situation or person.
Sustainable development: Sustainable development is an organizing principle for meeting human development goals while also sustaining the ability of natural systems to provide the natural resources and ecosystem services on which the economy and society depend.