THE USE OF TEACHING MATERIALS IN LEARNING AND STUDYING IN PRIMARY SCHOOLS
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Effective teaching and learning require the use of instructional materials. The value of high-quality, appropriate instructional resources in teaching and learning can be demonstrated through their effective use in the classroom, according to Obasi (2008). The instructional materials include all of the tools that teachers can use to make teaching more exciting and memorable.
According to Farombi (1998), teaching resources include books, audiovisual materials, educational software, and educational technology hardware. He also believes that the accessibility, sufficiency, and relevance of teaching materials in classrooms can influence effective teaching, thereby assisting students in learning and performing better. Farombi's (1998) insight into the critical role of instructional resources in ensuring students' academic success is critical for providing a high-quality education. Efficiency and high output are critical in the teaching and learning transaction. Begin, scholars believe, with access to high-quality, appropriate educational materials that should be prepared well in advance of class participation.
Coombs (2000) defines education as having two components. He classified these two elements. He classified these two components as inputs and outputs. Inputs are defined as human and material resources, whereas outputs are defined as the educational process's objectives and outcomes. Both inputs and outputs form a dynamic organic whole, and the effects of one component on the other must be investigated and assessed in order to improve the educational system's performance (Ibe-Bassey, 2012). Instructional materials are printed and non-printed items used in the educational process to convey information to students.
Kits, textbooks, magazines, newspapers, photos, recordings, slides transparencies, films, video, discs, workbooks, and electronic media, including but not limited to music, movies, radio, software, CD ROMS, and on-line services, are examples of instructional materials. Instructional material is critical in the teaching-learning process. It helps students' memory. Due to the expansion of education, sole oral instruction cannot be the basis for effective pedagogy; thus, the teacher must utilize instructional materials to enhance the teaching-learning process (Nicholls, 2000; Raw, 2003). The use of educational materials can aid students in their learning process.
Cronbac (2009) identifies the critical components of behavior that serve as the basis for teaching theory settings; the situation encompasses all of the objects, people, and symbols in the learner's environment. Situational experiences teach a person how to react in the future to similar situations. It is necessary to create an environment conducive to learning. This umbrella term encompasses all of the abilities and natural responses that an individual brings to a situation.
According to Chonjo (1994), individual attention can be piqued through the use of instructional materials. The learner's objective is defined as what he or she wishes to accomplish. Because goals direct efforts, the teacher's motivation challenge is fundamentally one of setting up an environment with instructional materials in which the learner can perceive the goals he wants to achieve. Interpretation: A person interprets a situation in order to take action. If appropriate tools are made available, a teacher and a student will be able to predict what will happen if various actions are taken. The usage of teaching information can aid a person's decision to take the appropriate action. Consequences: Actions are followed by rewards and consequences. If an instructive is employed, the prediction will be satisfying, and the outcomes will justify the person's work, making him feel completely satisfied (Babayomi 1999). In most sophisticated countries, instructional materials are employed effectively and actively to aid the teaching-learning process.
According to Oni (1992), teaching resources are a strategic aspect in the organization and delivery of education by teachers. This is because they help to elaborate an idea that the instructor would not be able to do without the usage of instructional materials. This allows pupils to learn more easily, which improves their academic achievement.
Balogun (1982), writing on the significance of teaching materials in teaching and learning, stated that science education programs cannot be taught effectively without the availability of teaching equipment. This is due to the fact that educational materials assist students in developing problem-solving abilities and scientific mindsets. Ajayi & Ogunyemi (1990) expand on the same concept, stating that when instructional materials are offered to satisfy the relative needs of the teaching process, students will have access to the reference materials indicated by the teacher, and each student will be able to learn at his or her own pace. As a result, students will do significantly better.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
According to Akande (2012), it is widely recognized throughout the world that the teaching materials used have a direct effect on student performance. These educational resources are critical components of the educational process. Teachers should cover curriculum content and prepare students for standardized assessments, according to Barnett (2002). Pupil achievement is critical in any teaching and learning scenario. Unfortunately, as education specialists have repeatedly noted over the last decade, pupil performance in Nigeria's elementary schools has been dismal. This issue of substandard performance appears to be gaining traction, with the potential to affect the country's entire economic situation. Nonetheless, teachers have neglected to utilize instructional resources, diminishing pupils' motivation to study. All of this has an effect on the performance of the students (Obasi 2008). Year after year, a large number of students perform poorly on exams, and the problem is getting worse. This, in turn, paves the way for a future of poverty. This substandard performance could be attributed to non-innovative teachers who are unwilling to properly utilize educational materials (Adeogum, 2001). Additionally, unqualified teachers may contribute to this problem. In this scenario, it is necessary to do research to determine the specific nature of the problem.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The broad objective of this study is to examine the use of teaching materials in teaching and learning in primary schools. Specifically but not limited to, other objectives of this study are:
i. To examine the extent teaching materials are used in primary schools.
ii. To ascertain the types of teaching materials utilized in primary schools.
iii. To ascertain the extent to which teaching materials are available in elementary schools.
iv. To examine the types of teaching materials used in primary schools.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The following research questions which in line with the objectives of these study will be answered:
i. To what extent are teaching materials used in primary schools?
ii. What are the types of teaching materials utilized in primary schools?
iii. To what extent are teaching materials available in elementary schools?
iv. What are the types of teaching materials used in primary schools?
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
Eminent educational academics have expressed worry about the state of teaching and learning in Nigerian primary schools, and numerous studies have been conducted to improve the teaching and learning situation. Despite this, efforts must be made to improve the utilization of instructional resources in the classroom, which serves as the foundation for this research.
Nonetheless, the significance of this study is to promote massive improvement in teaching and learning in Nigerian primary schools through the use of teaching resources in order to achieve better and more sustainable results in the near future in order to improve government aims and objectives in primary schools.
Finally, this study will be beneficial to the scholars and students as it will serve as an existing material for further studies and future research.
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This study will be focused on examining the use of teaching materials in teaching and learning in primary schools. Specifically, this study will be focused on examining the extent teaching materials are used in primary schools, ascertaining the types of teaching materials utilized in primary schools, ascertaining the extent to which teaching materials are available in elementary schools and examining the types of teaching materials used in primary schools.
Selected primary schools in Delta State will serve as enrolled participants for the survey of this study.
1.7 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
A study of this nature would be incomplete without addressing some of the researcher's difficulties. As a result, the following sections address the various issues that limit the findings of this research endeavor.
i. This study is primarily based on pupil and teacher responses. Due to the insufficient time allotted for this study, the researcher was unable to conduct a thorough and comprehensive investigation into the subject.
ii. Another period of extended vacation for teachers and pupils occurred in the local government region used as a case study for this research.
iii. Finally, the researcher received no responses to any questionnaires distributed to instructors, pupils, or counselors. And this would only serve to encourage the researcher to collaborate with those closest to him or her.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Teaching materials: A material that is designed to help facilitate learning and knowledge acquisition.
Pupils: a person who is taught by another, especially a schoolchild or student in relation to a teacher.