THE USE OF SOCIAL NETWORKING SITES ON STUDENTS ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Today, the globe celebrates the advancements in communication technologies that have expanded the reach of communication via Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs). Modern communication technology has undoubtedly transformed the globe into a "global village." As it stands, however, technology brings with it both terrible and beneficial aspects. It helps people become more knowledgeable, intelligent, and current on world events. Mankind is exposed to a better method of doing things because of technology. Twitter, Yahoo Messenger, Facebook Messenger, Blackberry Messenger (BBM), Whatsapp messenger, 2go messenger, Skype, Google chat, Google Messenger, iPhone, and Androids are examples of social networking sites. Most individuals use these social networking sites to engage with old and new acquaintances, whether they are actual or virtual (Asemah & Edegoh, 2022). The fast progress of technology has resulted in the employment of technology as the most effective method for exploring the vast field of knowledge.
Through the World Wide Web, a network of wired and wireless devices have interconnected the global cyber community (WWW). Today, the majority of us have established a presence in cyberspace through email accounts, online transactions, and e-learning.
The primary application of social media in the Web 2.0 era is social networking sites. Social media is the most rapidly expanding web application of the twenty-first century.
The subject of technology addiction has received significant attention, particularly in the secondary school education sphere, because adolescents are more susceptible to the addiction. Recently, though, smart phone addiction has become a more significant issue (Asemah & Edegoh, 2022).
Smart phones are the next generation of mobile phones; they have debuted in recent years and have already dominated the market. With their little keyboards, smart phones are more than simply phones; they also have computer capabilities such as email, calendar, address book, and office apps for reading and editing. The multimedia capabilities of the smartphone, such as camera, video, audio recordings, and podcasting, are superior to those of specialist equipment.
Mobile phones have grown ubiquitous due to the proliferation of gadgets included in current mobile phones (especially 3G and 4G phones) such as MP3 players and the decrease in size and cost of such devices. The cell phone is a tool that can be used anywhere and at any time, increasing the propensity to do things both privately and publicly. People lose the ability to control the boundaries between suitable and inappropriate use of mobile phones on occasion as a result of their cell phone use (Ling, 2022).
The usage of social networking sites (such as Facebook, Twitter, WhatsApp, Skype, Instagram, etc.) has become widespread among college students in this age of technology (Hanson, Drumheller, Mallard, Mckee & Schlegel, 2022). With the rise in popularity of wireless technology, connecting to these social networking sites has gotten simpler and more comfortable. This has lead to a daily rise of more than one billion users accessing these websites. Among the most active consumers of wireless technology, 81 percent are young individuals aged 18-29. (Lenhart, Purcell, Smith & Zickuhr, 2022). Significant demand for social networking sites exists among college students. 92% of all undergraduate students participate in social media (Junco & Cotton, 2022). As college students increasingly utilize social media, it is crucial that instructors and administrators at higher education institutions understand how this affects student academic performance.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Without a doubt, the advent of technology such as mobile phones has resulted in enormous beneficial progress for human civilizations, but this innovation has also resulted in certain recognized attitude problems among school students (Junco, Merco, & Salter, 2022). However, this does not imply that the use of mobile phones is the sole source of these problems, since there are other reasons, but that the attitudes of the users and the styles of usage are key contributing factors, particularly in the 21st century. Scholars have found difficulties related with phone usage and time (Wei & Lo, 2022), phone attachment (Gaser), and in light of this, it is necessary to demonstrate the relationship between these findings and academic performance. In order to synchronize and have a clearer understanding of the problem as it relates to this study, it is important to keep in mind that other platforms of distractions towards the academic performance of secondary school students are also implicated, such as computer usages, which generate internet social networking sites, and visual display devices for relaxation such as televisions.
In addition, there is a strong propensity for students to interact with their phones during lectures, either to react to incoming messages or to explore the internet. These undoubtedly have a significant impact on the amount of focus dedicated to lectures. Even outside of the classroom, the majority of students with internet-enabled phones spend considerable time communicating on Twitter 2go, Facebook, and instant messaging (Bbm, Yahoo messenger) (Asemah & Edegoh, 2022). Therefore, time that should have been spent to study and other academically beneficial activities is wasted.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The primary objective of this study is to examine the use of social networking sites on students academic performance. Specifically, this study seeks to:
i. Determine the extent students use social networking sites in schools.
ii. Determine whether the use of social media affects academic performance of students.
iii. Examine the different types of social networking sites used by students in schools.
iv. Find out the effects of the use of networking sites on students.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The following research questions will be answered in this study:
i. To what extent do students use social networking sites in schools?
ii. Does the use of social media affects academic performance of students?
iii. What are the different types of social networking sites used by students in schools?
iv. What are the effects of the use of networking sites on students?
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
Students, parents, teachers, school administrators, and school counselors will find this study beneficial. As the school's knowledge recipients, pupils will comprehend how the use of smart phones might impair their academic success.
Teachers will find these works beneficial since they give the justification for ensuring that pupils are instructed on when and how to use smart phones and social networking sites.
The school administrator will view this work as one that can be depended upon and, as a result, will devise guidelines that can implement the study's recommendations.
The counselor will implement the information gained from this work by introducing students to the usage of smart phones and social networking sites, therefore enhancing their academic performance.
Finally, this study will be beneficial to scholars and researchers as it will serve as pilot study for further research and future reference.
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This study focuses on the use of social networking sites on students academic performance. Specifically, this study focuses on determining the extent students use social networking sites in schools, determining whether the use of social media affects academic performance of students, examining the different types of social networking sites used by students in schools and finding out the effects of the use of networking sites on students.
Students of selected schools in Edo State will serve as enrolled participants for the survey of this study.
1.7 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
Like in every human endeavour, the researcher encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size. More so, the researcher simultaneously engaged in this study with other academic work. As a result, the amount of time spent on research will be reduced.
Moreover, the case study method utilized in the study posed some challenges to the investigator including the possibility of biases and poor judgment of issues. However, the investigator relied on respect for the general principles of procedures, justice, fairness, objectivity in observation and recording, and weighing of evidence to overcome the challenges.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Social Networking Sites: A social networking service or SNS is an online platform which people use to build social networks or social relationships with other people who share similar personal or career content, interests, activities, backgrounds or real-life connections. Social networking services vary in format and the number of features.
Academic Performance: Academic performance is the extent to which a student, teacher or institution has attained their short or long-term educational goals. Completion of educational benchmarks such as secondary school diplomas and bachelor's degrees represent academic achievement.