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THE ROLE OF INFORMATION COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY IN THE MANAGEMENT OF STUDENTS RECORDS IN UNIVERSITY

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THE ROLE OF INFORMATION COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY IN THE MANAGEMENT OF STUDENTS RECORDS IN UNIVERSITY

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the study

According to the International Federation of Information and Communications Technology (IFGICT), information and communications technology (ICT) is an extension of information technology (IT) that emphasizes the role of unified communications[1]and the integration of telecommunications telephone lines and wireless signals with computers, as well as necessary enterprise software, middleware, storage, and audiovisual, that enable users to access, store, transmit, understand, and manipulate data. There are significant financial incentives to combine the telephone and computer networks into a single unified cabling, signal distribution, and management system. ICT is a broad term that encompasses any communication device, such as radio, television, cell phones, computer and network hardware, satellite systems, and so on, as well as the various services and appliances that go along with them, such as video conferencing and distance learning.[3]ICT is a broad subject, and the concepts are evolving. The philosopher Piyush Mathur identified theoretical differences between interpersonal and mass communication technologies.[5] Skills Framework for the Information Age is one of many models for describing and managing competencies for ICT professionals in the twenty-first century .[6]

A record is a collection of fields, possibly of different data types, typically in a fixed number and sequence.[5] Fields of a record may also be called members, particularly in object-oriented programming; fields may also be called elements, though this may cause confusion with the elements of a collection.For example, a date could be stored as a record containing a numeric year field, a month field, and a year field. A personnel file may include a name, a salary, and a rank. A Circle record might have a center and a radius; in this case, the center could be represented as a point record with x and y coordinates. Records differ from arrays in that their number of fields is usually fixed, each field has a name, and each field can be of a different type.

A data type that describes such values and variables is known as a record type. The programmer can define new record types in most modern computer languages. Each field's data type and an identifier (name or label) by which it can be accessed are specified in the definition. Product types (without field names) are generally preferred in type theory because they are simpler, but proper record types are studied in languages like System F-sub. Many features of object-oriented programming can be expressed using type-theoretical records, which can contain first-class function-typed fields in addition to data. Records can be found on any storage medium, including main memory and mass storage devices like magnetic tapes and hard disks. Most data structures, especially linked data structures, rely heavily on records. The parameters of a function or procedure can often be viewed as the fields of a record variable; and the arguments passed to that function can be viewed as a record value that gets assigned to that variable at the time of the call. Many computer files are organized as arrays of logical records, often grouped into larger physical records or blocks for efficiency. In addition, each entry in the call stack, which is commonly used to implement procedure calls, is an activation record or call frame, which contains the procedure parameters and local variables, as well as the return address and other internal fields.

In object-oriented programming, an object is essentially a record with procedures specialized to handle that record, and object types are elaborations of record types. Indeed, records are just special cases of objects in most object-oriented languages, and are referred to as plain old data structures (PODSs) in contrast to objects that use OO features.

A record can be thought of as the computer equivalent of a mathematical tuple, though depending on conventions and the programming language, a tuple may or may not be considered a record, and vice versa. A record type can also be thought of as the computer language equivalent of the Cartesian product of two or more mathematical sets, or as the implementation of an abstract product type in a specific language.

1.2 Statement of research problem

The necessity for technical advancement has resulted in a revolution in the creation of technology tools for storing and managing educational records. Using ICT for record keeping and administration will go a long way toward improving the quality of school records all around the globe. Educators are quickly recognizing the need of utilizing computers to preserve and manage school data. Administrators, academic and non-academic personnel at tertiary institutions might benefit from this. Organizations' lifeblood is their records and record keeping (Egwunyenga, 2006). It would be very impossible to successfully organize and run any institution, such as a school, if records were not properly maintained and handled. School records are papers, books, diskettes, and files that include information on academic and non-academic activities at the school, as well as school staff, students, and other school resources such as instructional materials (Olagboye, 2004). However, ICT faces a number of challenges, including a lack of basic ICT technicians and personnel, adequate infrastructures/resources, insufficient funding, a lack of basic education and ICT skills, and ICT facilities being disrupted by power outages and computer network failures during record keeping. These are only a few of the topics that will be addressed in the research.

1.3 Objectives of the study

The primary objective of the study is as follows

1.     To find out the  role of Information Communication Technology in the Management of Students’ Records in Universities

2.     To find out if information communication technology have been effective in managing university students records

3.     to find out if there are  skilled personnel who can manage information communication technology in universities

4.     To find out ways of improving in the usage of information communications technology in keeping university students record.

1.4 Research hypothesis

H0: information communications technology do not play a part  in keeping record of students in the university.

H1: information communications technology  plays a part  in keeping record of students in the university.

1.5 Significance of the study

The significance of this study cannot be underestimated as:

l  This study will examine The role of Information Communication Technology in the Management of Students’ Records in Universities

l  The findings of this research work will undoubtedly provide the much needed information to government organizations,  education board and academia.

1.6 Scope of the study

This study examines The role of Information Communication Technology in the Management of Students’ Records in Universities. hence, this study will be delimited to federal university of technology Nekede, Imo state

1.7 Limitations of the study

This study was constrained by a number of factors which are as follows:

 just like any other research, ranging from unavailability of needed accurate materials on the topic under study, inability to get data

Financial constraint , was faced by  the researcher ,in getting relevant materials  and  in printing and collation of questionnaires

Time factor: time factor pose another constraint since having to shuttle between writing of the research and also engaging in other academic work making it uneasy for the researcher

1.8 Operational definition of terms

ICT: information communications technology

Management: the process of dealing with or controlling things or people

Record:  a thing constituting a piece of evidence about the past, especially an account kept in writing or some other permanent form


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