THE EFFECT OF ALCOHOLISM ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS IN CALABAR SOUTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF CROSS RIVER STATE
OBOT, UBONG ANIEDI
DEPARTMENT OF SCIENCE EDUCATION
FACULTY OF EDUCATION
UNIVERSITY OF CALABAR
This is to certify that this research project on the Effect of Alcoholism on the Academic Performance of Students in Calabar South Local Government Area of Cross River State is an original work carried out by me Obot, Ubong Aniedi with the Matriculation Number (11/06244321), Department of Science Education (Biology unit), Faculty of Education, University of Calabar, Calabar under competent supervision.
Obot, Ubong Aniedi Date
I declare that this research project on the Effect of Alcoholism on the Academic Performance of Students in Calabar South Local Government Area of Cross River State is an original work carried out by Obot, Ubong Aniedi with the Matriculation Number (11/06244321), Department of Science Education (Biology unit), Faculty of Education, University of Calabar, Calabar under my supervision and has met the requirement for the award of Bachelor of Science Education (B. Sc. Ed.) Degree in Biology.
Dr. (Mrs.) Esther E. Ekon Date
Department of Science Education
University of Calabar
I am sincerely grateful to the Almighty God for His infinite grace, protection and guidance throughout my study in this University of Calabar.
I am especially grateful to my able Project Supervisor; Dr. (Mrs.) Esther Ekon who took great pains to read through this work and whose motherly advice and counsel has made it possible to accomplish this research, indeed, she is a mother, God bless you ma’am.
I am grateful to my Parent; Mr. Obot, Udoh and Mrs. Rebecca Udoh for their moral and financial contributions towards my completion of this course. I love you and you are the best parent any ward can have. I am very grateful to my siblings; John & Joseph Obot (the Jees), Peace Obot, Loveth Obot and James Obot for their support towards the completion of this project.
My unreserved appreciation goes to my Pastors and mentors of Honeystreams Christian Center (HSCC); Pastor Akomaye Ugar for his spiritual coverage over my life, his unending love and his great impact into my life, my life wouldn’t have been this great if I hadn’t known him; he is indeed a light in this generation. Also, to Pastor Israel Nwoye; whose financial advices are always timely and resourceful. I love you Sir.
I very much appreciate my senior friends; Evalsam Ele, Paul Nneke, Paul Isibor, Mr. Wills, Sir Saint (the relationship doctor & Mayor of Calabar) and Minister Bassey for their love and support. These relationships has immensely shaped my life.
I would not forget my friends; Christian Alexander (you may not be here but you still remain in my heart), Akpassen Promise Godwin, , Air Marshal Piro, Francis, Charles, Ramsey and Victoria Ifendu who stood by me and made this research a success.
My special thanks goes to the Principal and teachers of Laurel Secondary School for their great assistance towards the completion of this research.
I equally recognize the efforts of those whose names are not mentioned due to space limit. Thank you.
This research work seeks to understand the effects of alcoholism on students’ academic performance in secondary school in Calabar South Local Government Area of Cross River State. The main objective of the study is to examine the effects of alcoholism on student’s academic performance among students in secondary school and to contribute towards a better comprehension of the significance and nature of the identified problem in order to bring possible solution to the problem. This research suggests some unique relationships between college student alcohol use and subsequent academic performance, but they also have many limitations. The instrument used in analyzing this work was questionnaire given to 210 students, thus, it was the remaining 202 properly completed questionnaires that are used for the analysis. The questionnaire was divided into three sections; section A revolves around the demographic data of respondents such as age, sex, etc. section B and C consist of questions which will answer the research questions. A chi-square (X2) was used to ascertain the result that extent the association between the dependent and independent variables. The chi-square (X2) is denoted by the formula: (X2) = ∑ (o-e)2. Based on the findings of this study, the following recommendations are made: teachers and Parents should try to give their children moral, spiritual, social, psychological, and financial support so as to guide them against peer and societal influences and government should provide all necessary materials and equipment to make teaching and learning interesting so as to reduce anti-social behaviours in schools.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TITLE PAGE i
TABLE OF CONTENTS vii
LIST OF TABLES x
1.1 Background to the study 1
1.2 Theoretical framework 11
1.3 Statement of the problem 17
1.4 Purpose of the study 17
1.5 Research questions 18
1.6 Research hypotheses 18
1.7 Significance of the study 19
1.8 Limitations of the study 20
1.9 Scope of the study 20
1.10 Basic assumptions of the study 21
1.11 Definition of significant terms 21
LITERATURE REVIEW AND THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
2.1 Alcoholism and students’ absenteeism from school 22
2.2 Alcoholism and time students spend on Academics 28
2.3 Alcoholism and students’ grade point average of each session 33
3.1 Research design 41
3.2 Area of Study 42
3.3 Population of the study 43
3.4 Instrument of data collection 43
3.5 Sample and Sampling technique 44
3.6 Data Collection procedure 45
3.7 Data preparation 46
3.8 Procedure for data analysis 46
DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS, AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS
4.1 Data presentation 47
4.2 Test of hypotheses 56
4.3 Discussion of findings 63
SUMMARY, RECOMMENDATIONS, AND CONCLUSION
5.1 Summary of the study 70
5.2 Recommendations 71
5.3 Conclusion 72
LIST OF TABLES
Table 1: Analysis on the percentage of questionnaire returned
Table 2: Distribution of respondent by sex 48
Table 3: Distribution of respondent by age 49
Table 4: Distribution of respondent by class 49
Table 5: Distribution of respondent by Religion 50
Table 6: Distribution of respondent by No of alcohol
intake per 51
Table 7: Distribution of respondent by major influence of academic performance among students 52
Table 8: Distribution of respondent by age at first alcoholic consumption 53
Table 9: Response to question 12 54
Table 10: Response to question 14 55
Table 11: Response to question 16 56
Table 12: Contingency table showing distribution of observed frequency for hypothesis one 57
Table 13: Chi-square computation of hypothesis one 58
Table 14: Contingency table showing distribution of observed frequencies for hypothesis two 59
Table 15: Chi-square computation for hypothesis two 60
Table 16: Contingency table showing distribution of observed frequencies for hypothesis three 62
Table 17: Chi-square computation of hypothesis three 62
1.1 Background of the study
In educational institutions, success is measured by academic performance. As career competition grows ever fiercer in the working world, the importance of students doing well in school has caught the attention of parents, and employers. Education is not the only road to success in the working world, much effort is made to identify, evaluate, track and encourage the progress of students in schools. Parents care about their children’s’ academic performance because they believe that good academic results will provide more career choices and job security (<span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 200%; font-family: 'Verdana','sans-s
This material content is developed to serve as a GUIDE for students to conduct academic research
Adelaka, M. L., Abiodun, O. A., Imoukhome, Obayan A. O., Oni G. A. & Ogunremi O.O.(1993). Psychological correlates of Alcohol, Tobacco and Cannabis use. Finding from Nigerian University. Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 33:234-256.
Adlaf, E. M., Demers, A., & Gliksman, L. (2005). Canadian Campus Survey 2004. Toronto: Centre for Addiction and Mental Health.
Aertgeerts, Bert and Frank Buntinx. ―The Relation between Alcohol Use Dependence and Academic Performance in First-Year High school Students. Journal of Adolescent Health. 2002: 31(3): 223-225.
Ali, Shoukat, Frank Joseph (2013). "Factors Contributing to the Students’ Academic Performance: A Case Study of Islamia University Sub-Campus." American Journal of Educational Research. 1(8): 283-289.
Annu Rev Public Health 2005; 26: 259–79.
Atkinson R. C., Shiffrin R. M. (1968). Human memory: a proposed system and its control processes. In: Spence K. W., Spence J. T., editors. The Psychology of Learning and Motivation, London: Academic Press;, p. 90–191.
Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51, 1173-1182.
Brown, S., Tapert, S., Granholm, E. Delis, D. Neurocognitive Functioning of Adolescents: Effects of Protracted Alcohol Use. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research. 2000: Vol. 24, No. 2: 164-169.
Bryant, A. L., Schulenberg, J. E., O’Malley, P. M., Bachman, J. G., & Johnston, L. D. (2003). How academic achievement, attitudes, and behaviors relate to the course of substance use during adolescence: A 6-year, multiwave national longitudinal study. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 13(3), 361-397. doi:10.1111/1532-7795.1303005.
Buboltz, W. C., Loveland, J., Jenkins, S. M., Brown, F., Soper, B., & Hodges J. (2006). High school student sleep: Relationship to health and academic performance. In M. V. Landaw (Ed.), High school students: Mental health and coping strategies (pp. 1-39). Hauppauge: Nova Science Publishers.
Butler, Adam B., Desiree Spencer and Kama Dodge. ―Academic Demands are Associated with Reduced Alcohol Consumption by High school Students: Evidence from a Daily Analysis.∥ Journal of Drug Education. 2011: 41(4): 359-367.
Chen C. M., Dufour M. C., Yi H.-Y. Alcohol consumption among young adults ages 18–24 in the United States: results from the 2001–2002 NESARC Survey. Alcohol Res Health 2004/2005; 28: 269–80.
Citation: Enyi Uko Jairus et al. Ijsrm.Human, 2017; Vol. 6 (2): 66-78.
DeBerard, M. S., Spielmans, G. I., & Julka, D. L. (2004). Predictors of academic achievement and retention among high school freshmen: A longitudinal study. High school Student Journal, 38(1), 66-80. Retrieved from https://www.lib.uwo.ca/cgi-bin/ezpauthn.cgi/docview/620362872?accountid=15115.
Del Boca, F. K., Darkes, J., Greenbaum, P. E., & Goldman, M. S. (2004). Up close and personal: Temporal variability in the drinking of individual high school students during their first year. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 72(2), 155-164. doi:10.1037/0022- 006X.72.2.155.
Engs R. C., Hanson D. J., Diebold B. A. The drinking patterns and problems of a national sample of high school students. J Alcohol Drug Educ 1996;41: 13–33.
Gillespie, Wayne, Jessica L. Holt and Roger L. Blackwell. Measuring Outcomes of Alcohol, Marijuana, and Cocaine use among High school Students: A Preliminary Test of the Shortened Inventory of Problems – Alcohol and Drugs (SIP-AD).∥ Journal of Drug Issues. 2007:37(3): 549-568.
Greenblatt, J. (2000). Patterns of Alcohol Use among Adolescents and Associations with Emotional and Behavioral Problems. Rockville, MD: Office of Applied Studies Working Paper. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Administration.
Hingson R. W., Heeren T., Winter M., Wechsler H. Magnitude of alcohol-related mortality and morbidity among US high school students ages 18–24: changes from 1998–2001.
Idoko Joseph Onyebuchukwu, Muyiwa Adeniyi Sholarin, Agoha, Benedict Chico Emerenwa. The Effect of Alcohol Consumption on the Academic Performance of Undergraduate Students. Psychology and Behavioral Sciences. 2015: Vol. 4, No. 4, pp.147-153.
Laurell H., Törnros J. Investigation of alcoholic hangover effects on driving performance. Blutalkohol 1983;20: 489– 99.
Morrow D., Leirer V., Yesavage J. The influence of alcohol and aging on radio communication during flight. Aviat Space Environ Med 1990;61: 12–20.
National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Recommended Council Guidelines on Ethyl Alcohol. Administration in Human Experimentation. Revised May 2005. Available at: http://www.niaaa.nih.gov/Resources/ Research Resources (accessed 12 March 2009).
Odejide, A. O. & Ohaeri, J. U. Awareness and drug abuse among patients attending primary facilities in a rural community. Nigerian Medical Journal.1994: 26;18-22.
Oshodi, C.O. Drug dependence and addiction, my studies in Kaduna; Nigerian Journal of Psychiatry. 1972: 1 (3) 194-203.
Paschall M. J., Freisthler B. Does heavy drinking affect academic performance in high school? Findings from a prospective study of high achievers. J Stud Alcohol Drugs 2003;64: 515–9.
Perkins H. W. Gender patterns in consequences of collegiate alcohol abuse: a 10-year study of trends in an undergraduate population. J Stud Alcohol 1992;53: 458–62.
Perkins H. W. Surveying the damage: a review of research on consequences of alcohol misuse in high school populations. J Stud Alcohol 2002; Suppl14: 91–100.
Perkins, H. Surveying the Damage: A Review of Research on Consequences of Alcohol Misuse in High school Populations. Journal of Studies on Alcohol. 2002: 14: 91-100.
Seppälä T., Leino T., Linnoila M., Huttunen M., Ylikahri R. Effects of hangover on psychomotor skills related to driving: modification by fructose and glucose.Acta Pharmacol Toxicol 1976;38: 209–18.
Singleton R. A. Collegiate alcohol consumption and academic performance. J Stud Alcohol Drugs2007;68: 548–55.
Singleton R. A., Wolfson A. R. Alcohol consumption, sleep, and academic performance among high school students. J Stud Alcohol Drugs 2009;70: 355–63.
Singleton, Royce A. and Amy R. Wolfston. ―Alcohol Consumption, Sleep, and Academic Performance among High school Students.∥ Journal of Studies of Alcohol and Drugs. 209: 70(3): 355-363.
Slutske W. S., Piasecki T. M., Hunt-Carter E. E. Development and initial validation of the Hangover Symptom Scale: prevalence and correlates of hangover symptoms in high school students. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2003;27: 1442–50.
Törnros J., Laurell H. Acute and hang-over effects of alcohol on simulated driving performance. Blutalkohol 1991;28: 24–30.
Wechsler H., Dowdall G. W., Maenner G., Gledhill-Hoyt J., Lee H. Changes in binge drinking and related problems among American high school students between 1993 and 1997: results of the Harvard School of Public Health High school Alcohol Study. J Am Coll Health 1998;47: 57–68.
Wechsler H., Nelson T. F. What have we learned from the Harvard School of Public Health High school Alcohol Study: focusing attention on high school student alcohol consumption and environmental conditions that promote it. J Stud Alcohol Drugs 2008;69: 481–90.
Werch C. E., Gornam D. R., Marty P. J. The relationship between alcohol consumption and alcohol problems in young adults. J School Health 1987;57: 232–6.
White H. R., Jackson K. Social and psychological influences on emerging adult drinking. Alcohol Res Health 2004/2005; 28: 182–90.
Wolaver A. M. Effects of heavy drinking on study effort, grade point average, and major choice. Contemp Econ Policy 2002;20: 415–28.
Wolkenberg R., Gold C., Tichauer E. Delayed effects of acute alcoholic intoxication on performance with reference to work safety. J Safety Res 1975;7: 104–19.
Wood P. K., Sher K. J., Erickson D. J., DeBord K. A. Predicting academic problems in high school from freshman alcohol involvement. J Stud Alcohol Drugs 1997;58: 200–10.
Yesavage J., Leirer V. Hangover effects on aircraft pilots 14 hours after alcohol ingestion: a preliminary report. Am J Psychiatry 1986;143: 1546–50.