IMPACT OF SCHOOL FUNDING ON SECONDARY SCHOOLS OUTPUT IN KOGI STATE
1.1 Background Of The Study
Education is the hub to human existence and development. It is through education that values are transmitted across generations. It also enables the society to create and domesticate knowledge. In the kind of knowledge driven society that the global village we call the world has turned into, any society that endangers its educational system, endangers its future. From a global perspective, economic and social development is increasingly driven by the advancement and application of knowledge. Education in general and secondary education in particular, are fundamental to the construction of a knowledge economy and society in all nations (World Bank Report, 2015).
In the unfolding world where change has become natural, furious in pace, and mandatory but development optional, a nation’s vitality and commitment to economic development anchors on its strategy on the quality of schooling (UNESCO, 2019) and lifelong learning experience it provides the citizen amongst other vital developmental catalyst. A definite nexus exist between education and development (WEF, 2016), and the axial connection between economic development and quality education is buttressed by Hanushek & Wobmann (2017), and kolb (2015) who argued the efficacy of experiential learning to advancing development. Developed countries (DC) tended to have higher level of quality education in terms of learning outcomes achievement, better learning environment, education spend per capita, student teacher ratio, infrastructural and teaching aids, relevant basic and applied research outcomes, et al.
In the light of the models’ characterisation, most African countries would appear to be living anachronistically in the 18th and 19th century when juxtaposed with the rest of the world in terms of the level of economic development, institutional advancement, rule of law, position in the world league of education institutions especially in terms of meeting learning objectives and contributing to the world pool of relevant development directed research efforts to the human race(Omolade, 2017). What this implies is that, African countries must situate their specific developmental needs and harness strategic resources in dealing with the challenges in a uniquely continental manner that bridges the consistency between the internal African environments with the rest of the world.
In addition, failure to contextualize education to the local environment in terms of content and delivery is an integral part of the challenges that have stymied educational development and accelerated the disconnection between education and economic development in Nigeria. There are legion of problems, but the poor financing of education(Kigotho, 2014) has increasingly widened the distance between the educational outcomes and societal expectation. There are organic issues starting from the basic education level through to the tertiary level but this study focuses on secondary education.
Nigeria’s public secondary schools have for decades, become a sorry sight. This has been occasioned by the seemingly endless list of heartrending challenges. Several challenges are besetting the secondary education with various policy documents detailing the way forward on education. Some of the challenges facing the transformation of Nigeria’s secondary education include: access and equality, standards and quality assurance, resources mobilization and utilization which are all linked to the inadequate funding of education in Nigeria(Fagge,2019). This accounts for substandard facilities like classrooms, laboratories, workshops, staff offices, recreational facilities, hostels, e-learning facilities, studios and workshops etc. There is also the perennial, unattractive remuneration for the community members comprising both the academic and non-academic staff. The absence of appropriate welfare package adds up to the problems.
In the light of the above, it is important to note that adequate school financing is necessary for building office accommodation and classrooms, training of teachers, payment of salaries and wages, provision of instructional materials and recreational facilities and investment for future consumption opportunities, among others. In other words, school financing influences a lot of factors which directly and indirectly affects the educational performance of students. According to Irikana & Weli, (2019), financing is of fundamental importance in the management of education at all levels globally. It is an essential educational resource which determines the quality and quantity of other resources needed for the proper functioning of the schools. The development of every educational system and the attainment of educational goals is tied to the availability of financial resources. Thus, finance is an indispensable tool in processing educational products for quality output. Hedges, Pigott, Polanin, Ryran, Tocci and William (2016) argued that one of the issues of contention in education financial research is how and whether the financial resources provided to schools relate to students’ academic achievement. Increasing school financial resources can contribute to such factors such as teacher quality, administrative capacity, students’ resources and facility investment which all have the potential to greatly affect student’s achievement. But the structure of school finance may also play a part in increasing academic performance. For instance, a finance system that fails to provide adequate teacher salaries may result in reduced teacher quality, as more experienced educators may leave relatively low paying jobs for better prospects with higher reward. On the other hand, a system that provides overly generous salaries and benefits for teachers may fail to invest in facilities such as classrooms, auditoriums or computer labs which may put students at a disadvantaged position and stifle learning opportunities. With respect to the aforementioned, this study will examine the impact of school funding on secondary schools output in Kogi State.
1.2 Statement Of The Problem
Education funding has been and continues to be a general concern for all education systems and the backbone of all educational planning. The government’s potential to provide quality education and plan new priorities depends on the abundance of adequate funding for education. The school funding management mechanism, distribution, and monitoring play an essential role in ensuring that resources are injected into their right portfolio (OECD, 2017). A flawed education funding system has deprived many African children’s right to receive education, especially in sub-Saharan African countries. Nigeria is not an exception, which leads to many problems and shortcomings such as unclear funding system, dysfunctional educational funding, poor quality graduates. This situation has encountered considerable concern in literary analysis and assessment from many scholars. A school system that is deficiency quality teachers and school leaders, adequate infrastructure, and textbooks will have more difficulties promoting quality education (OECD, 2017). Thus, adequate funding of the educational sector(Basic, Post-basic, and Tertiary Institutions) and a well utilization of the available financial allocation make the sector to develop. It enables the system to function smoothly, effectively and efficiently at all times in its productivity and the students‘ learning outcomes.
Nigeria as a developing country is set to improve the widening access to education especially the secondary level of education. This has renamed the cardinal objective of the three tiers of governments in Nigeria. Education is seen as a right and responsibility to be guaranteed to all generations (FRN, 1999), however elements of uncertainty have clouded the sector in nominal and real situations. Schools at all levels lacked basic infrastructure and qualified teachers, suffer inadequate allocation, inadequate funding, features abandoned capital projects, such as library and laboratories.
Secondary schools in Nigeria have suffered funding inadequacies over the past decades, this situations has negatively been affecting the school’s learning outcomes. According to Veerspoor (2018), the quality of secondary education in Nigeria faces many challenges ranging from teacher absenteeism, inadequate teaching and learning materials and lack of school physical facilities among other many. Veerspoor attributes challenges to inadequate school financial resources (Veerspoor 2018).
In problem of inadequate financing of secondary schools in Nigeria is yet to witness the brightest of solutions. Despite the government capitation funding to secondary schools, there is still need for further funding to address issues such as infrastructure development, staffing, and feeding programs which are key to universal access, retention and completion of secondary education cycle hence contributing to a larger extent to improved academic performance. This issue of public concern has affected the quality of teachers available in our secondary schools, and even the commitment level of the available teachers is nothing to write home about. Many teachers in secondary schools have turned ghost workers as their motivation towards their job role declined profusely due the poor remuneration, delay in payment of salaries, unavailability of teaching aids etc. The attendant and composite effects are poor quality teaching and poor performance of students at internal and external examination in West African Certificate Examination (WAGE). These most times lead to closure of schools and strike actions (Omotor, 2015). It could be that the observed poor performance of students at West African Senior School Certificate Examination (WASSCE) in Nigeria might be related to inadequate funding of secondary education rather than students learning task and ability.
1.2 Objective Of The Study
The primary aim of this study is to examine the impact of school funding on secondary schools output in Kogi State. The study will extension attain the following specific objectives;
Ascertain whether the senior secondary schools in Ilorin, Kogi state are adequately financed.
Ascertain the factors affecting the proper financing of secondary schools in Ilorin, Kogi state are adequately financed.
Investigate the effect of poor financing on the quality of secondary school education in Ilorin, Kogi state are adequately financed.
1.4 Research Questions
The study will be guided by the following questions derived from the objectives;
Are the senior secondary schools in Ilorin, Kogi state are adequately financed?
What are the factors affecting the proper financing of secondary schools in Ilorin, Kogi state are adequately financed?
What is the effect of poor financing on the quality of secondary school education in Ilorin, Kogi state are adequately financed?
1.5. Research Hypothesis
Ho1: There is no significant correlation between school financing and the quality of secondary school education.
Ha1: There is a significant correlation between school financing and the quality of secondary school education.
1.6 Significance Of The Study
The study will be of paramount use for various stakeholders in the Nigerian educational section, specifically the secondary schools. At the completion of this study, the Government most important will be enlightened on the undisputable reasons why educational sector should be financed adequate so as to boost our educational standard. In same manner, the study will serve as an eye opener to the Government as it will unveil to them some hidden factors which has deteriorated the effective management of funds allocated to schools.
Similarly, through this study, major stakeholders in secondary schools will realize the need to increase the funding of secondary schools for the recruitment of qualified teachers, provisions of teaching and learning aids etc.
Additionally, subsequent researchers will use it as literature review. This means that, other students who may decide to conduct studies in this area will have the opportunity to use this study as available literature that can be subjected to critical review. Invariably, the result of the study contributes immensely to the body of academic knowledge with regards to the impact of school funding on secondary schools output in Kogi State.
1.7 Scope Of The Study
This study will generally examine the impact of school funding on secondary schools output in Kogi State. The study will be delimited to some selected secondary schools in Ilorin, Kogi state. Hence, the respondents for this study will be obtained among teachers, and administrators of the selected schools.
1.8 Limitation Of The Study
Like in every human endeavour, the researcher encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size. More so, the researcher simultaneously engaged in this study with other academic work. As a result, the amount of time spent on research will be reduced.
1.9 Definition Of Terms
Impact: A marked effect or influence.
Finance: Finance is the allocation of financial resources in order to satisfy a need, to carry out a project, or to carry out a programme.
School finance: School finance is a broad and evolving field encompassing three resource-related functions – raising revenue, allocating resources, and using resources all aimed at providing educational opportunities and producing educational outcomes.