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EFFECT OF SCAFFOLDING INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGY ON ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF SECONDARY SCHOOL BIOLOGY

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EFFECT OF SCAFFOLDING INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGY ON ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF SECONDARY SCHOOL BIOLOGY

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study

Education is the structural key to a nation's harmony, stability, and sustainable development; it is a fundamental human right. Education is widely regarded as a tool for attaining national goals in Nigeria. As stated in the National Policy in Education (as cited in Akpan, 2018; Federal Republic of Nigeria, 2004), education serves as the preeminent instrument in the pursuit of national progress. This explains why the government allocates such a substantial sum of money annually to education. A crucial element of Nigeria's Vision 20-20 is to provide students with a dynamic and contemporary science education system that facilitates significant knowledge acquisition. This provides students with the opportunity to realise their full potential and fulfil the nation's demand for skilled and capable labour. This objective might be attainable via effective biology instruction and study at the elementary level. 

Biology is a scientific discipline devoted to the investigation of biological organisms (Ramalingam, 2020). Biology significantly contributes to the achievement of scientific goals due to the fact that its knowledge is implemented in numerous economic sectors, such as industry, agriculture, and medicine; without it, a country would continue to be underdeveloped (Ugwuadu, 2020; Joda & Abel, 2017). Students have been able to pursue careers in food technology, pharmacy, medicine, and veterinary medicine, among others. It has been utilised in plant genetics, for instance, to produce disease-resistant and high-yielding crops in order to increase food production for an ever-expanding population. It has found industrial application in the production of bread, beer, and milk (Akpan, 2018). A similar progression in biology has witnessed the creation of pharmaceuticals and vaccines intended to prevent and treat illnesses, an upsurge in agricultural output, and heightened consciousness regarding genetic disorders and their preventative measures (Ramalingam, 2020). Therefore, biology contributes to national development by virtue of its diverse applications to humanity. 

Scaffolding instructional strategies are designed to facilitate pupil learning during the initial stages of being introduced to a new subject. Students receive instruction and assistance in the form of scaffolding as they acquire new skills and concepts. This implies that the support is discontinued once the learner attains competence. Jerome Bruner coined the term "scaffolding" to refer to a method by which an inexperienced individual or learner could be guided through a task that they might not have been capable of accomplishing without assistance, until they were capable of executing the task independently. The definition presented here was shaped by Vygotsky's (1978) concept of the zone of proximal development (Adieze 2019), which he defined as the disparity between an individual's current developmental level (as determined by independent problem solving) and their potential development level (as determined by problem solving under adult guidance or in collaboration with more capable peers). This suggests that students possess the capacity to learn and can be developed further through the assistance of tutors, instructors, and fellow students. As a result, scaffolding provides students with a framework, incentive, or basis to comprehend newly presented material in the subsequent lesson. A scaffolding may also be regarded as a provisional structure that aids in the support of a nascent structure. The scaffolds are eliminated when the structure reaches a self-supporting capacity (Alake & Ogunseemi, 2022; Jibrilla, 2018). Ertmer and Cennamo (2020) assert that the principle of retreat of support in the teaching and learning process cannot be fully elucidated by scaffolds in construction. Ertmer and Cennamo elaborated on this through the lens of education. 

According to Winnips (2021) and Adieze (2019), scaffolding facilitates student learning, and withdrawing that support could potentially result in students becoming more independent. According to Casem (2020) and Akani (2018), there was a significant difference in academic performance between students who were subjected to the scaffolding strategy and those who were exposed to the traditional method. In contrast, Ibritam, Udofia, and Onweh (2018) discovered that there was no statistically significant distinction between students who were instructed through the demonstration instructional method and those who were taught using the scaffolding instructional strategy during site preparation. Uduafemhe (2021) found that the mean scores of male and female pupils who were instructed in Basic Electronics through the implementation of scaffolding and collaborative teaching approaches did not differ significantly. This demonstrates that contradictory findings continue to circulate regarding the efficacy of scaffolding strategies in secondary institutions to improve student achievement. The recurring low academic performance of biology students in Nigeria could potentially be attributed to the teacher's ineffectiveness in implementing student-centered strategies during classroom interactions, according to the observation. Hence, it is imperative to conduct an inquiry into the impact of scaffolding instructional strategy on the academic performance of secondary school biology students.

1.2. Statement of the Problem 

Students have consistently demonstrated subpar academic performance in science courses as a whole, with biology being a particular area of concern. The chief examiner's report on the academic achievement of senior secondary school students in Nigeria from 2002 to 2018 has consistently documented subpar performance in the subject of Biology during the senior secondary school certificate examination administered by the West African Examination Council (WAEC). Inadequate laboratory and biology instructional materials, insufficient class sizes, and the instructional strategies employed by biology instructors are all factors that contribute to students' subpar academic performance in the subject (WAEC, 2018; Osuafor, 2019; Joda & Mohammed, 2017; Joda, 2018). As a result, alternative methods of presenting biology concepts to students must be investigated in order to improve concepts retention, academic achievement, and meaningful learning. In order to address this, learned-centered strategies such as cooperative instructional strategy, guided inquiry, problem-solving, and instructional scaffolding must be implemented. Hence, the objective of this research endeavour is to ascertain the impact of an instructional scaffolding strategy on the academic performance and concept retention of Biology students.

1.3 Objective of the study

The broad objective of the study is to examine the effect of scaffolding instructional strategy on academic achievement of secondary school biology. The specific objectives is as follows: 

Ascertain whether scaffolding instructional strategy facilitates students active participation in the teaching and learning of biology

Ascertain whether scaffolding instructional strategy enhances students learning prowess and comprehension in the teaching and learning of biology.

Ascertain whether scaffolding instructional strategy facilitates students Skill acquisition in teaching and learning of biology.

Ascertain whether scaffolding instructional strategy improves students retention and learning outcome in the teaching and learning of biology.

Ascertain whether scaffolding instructional strategy enhances students academic performance in biology.

1.4 Research Questions

The following questions have been prepared for the study:

Does scaffolding instructional strategy facilitates students active participation in the teaching and learning of biology?

Does scaffolding instructional strategy enhances students learning prowess and comprehension in the teaching and learning of biology?

Does scaffolding instructional strategy facilitates students Skill acquisition in teaching and learning of biology?

Does scaffolding instructional strategy improves students retention and learning outcome in the teaching and learning of biology?

Does scaffolding instructional strategy enhances students academic performance in biology?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

Ho: There is no significant relationship between scaffolding instructional strategy on academic achievement of secondary school biology.

Ha: There is a significant relationship between scaffolding instructional strategy on academic achievement of secondary school biology.

1.6 Significance of the Study 

The findings from this study would help teachers to know the scaffolding instructional strategy of teaching and utilize during teaching and learning process.  This study also educates some teachers who do not know about scaffolding instructional strategy of teaching on the relevance of this method of teaching. The factors that hinders the effectiveness of scaffolding instructional strategy of teaching is also addressed in this study. The findings from this study can also act as template for other research work. This study will enhance the existing body of literature by contemplating the areas of the literature that have not yet been examined or considered and incorporating these factors into the current study. The study will also serve as a reference material to scholar and student who wishes to conduct further studies in relate field.

1.7 Scope Of The Study

The scope of this study borders on the effect of scaffolding instructional strategy on academic achievement of secondary school biology. Hence, the study will delimited to some selected secondary school in Ikwuano, Abia State.

1.8 Limitation of the Study

Like in every human endeavour, the researcher encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size. More so, the researcher simultaneously engaged in this study with other academic work. As a result, the amount of time spent on research will be reduced.

Moreover, the case study method utilized in the study posed some challenges to the investigator including the possibility of biases and poor judgment of issues. However, the investigator relied on respect for the general principles of procedures, justice, fairness, objectivity in observation and recording, and weighing of evidence to overcome the challenges.

1.9 Definition of Terms

Scaffolding Instructional Strategy: This is a form of coaching and support to students as they develop new skills or learn new concepts.


This material content is developed to serve as a GUIDE for students to conduct academic research



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