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AN ASSESSMENT OF THE IMPACT OF TEACHER PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT ON STUDENT ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT IN MATHEMATICS

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AN ASSESSMENT OF THE IMPACT OF TEACHER PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT ON STUDENT ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT IN MATHEMATICS

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background Of The Study

The school and teachers are confronted with challenges in this regard to parents and society due to the dynamic nature of society and its changing expectations regarding the quality and assessment of education, as well as the low performance of students in secondary schools. In reality, the challenges that teachers and their education face in order to satisfy these requirements are intricate and ongoing (Mamoria, 2019). For the past three decades, professional development for teachers has become a global trend and has increased in significance and status. Many countries have regarded it as the primary component of strategies to enhance the quality of educational provision (Harwell, 2018).Teacher Professional Development (TPD) is considered a critical component of ensuring that schools are of high quality in terms of teaching and learning (Githae, 2016). Nemanick (2020) noted that TPD is of particular significance due to its ability to impact the learning of students and instructors, as well as classroom instruction. As a critical instrument for fostering student success, teacher professional development has garnered substantial global recognition [Pauline 2018]. This necessitates the implementation of more sophisticated instructional methods to improve students' abilities in the areas of critical thinking, self-direction, collaboration, critical thinking, and complex problem-solving (Githae, 2020). Teacher professional development is a deliberate, continuous, and systematic process that involves formal and informal education, training, learning, and support activities. This process is proactively conducted by teachers, school principals, and other school leaders, either individually or in collaboration, and it has a direct or indirect benefit to the individual teacher, students, school, and nation at large (Pigor et al. 2021). Such activities may take place in external or work-based settings. 

In addition to serving as a cohesive element of a well-designed Professional Development (PD) programme, teachers must also be engaged learners in order to achieve success. Obisi (2019) posits that the teaching and learning experience in the school environment can be enhanced by guaranteeing that professional development requirements are content-driven, long-term, and collaborative. Richardson (Pigor et al. 2021) observed that teachers must participate in professional development that is both sustainable and intensive within the school system in order to achieve success in their daily instructing. It has also been determined that professional development programme design elements that are content-specific, inquiry-based, collaborative, and in accordance with school policies have the potential to optimise teacher learning and teaching practices, as well as student learning outcomes (Mammer, 2019). 

In reality, numerous African nations have maintained their dedication to the provision of universal basic education for their citizens, despite the austere financial environment and underdevelopment that have prevailed since the 1980s (Athenga, 2022). Many African countries share similar challenges in terms of enhancing the quality and equity of education (Babs, 2018). The professional development supply in Sub-Saharan Africa, particularly in West Africa, must be regarded in the context of its distinctness from the professional development provided in the United States of America and European countries. Owodunmi (2023) contended that the nature and provision of professional development exhibit remarkable variations. The majority of teachers in these African countries are either untrained or lack the necessary training, despite the existence of teacher education programmes and in-service training. Abdullahi (2022) observed that one-third of in-service instructors in Sub-Saharan African countries are unqualified and untrained in either the academic or professional context, or both. Numerous educators are recruited; however, they lack sufficient subject-specific knowledge and pedagogical preparation, as well as in-service training programmes that are either nonexistent or inadequately developed. 

In response to the global challenges, the Nigeria Education Service (NES) must implement innovative strategies that are designed to enhance the knowledge of its personnel and to enhance their capacity through ongoing professional development. Continuing Professional Development (CPD) for teachers has been acknowledged as a critical tool in the context of school improvements and reforms, particularly due to the fact that student learning and success are significantly influenced by the effectiveness of their instructors (Emeka 2022). Chabra (2024) has provided evidence that a positive correlation exists between students' academic accomplishments and Teacher Professional Development (TPD). Consequently, it is crucial that educators are well-informed about the societal dynamics, as their profession involves preparing individuals to fulfil societal requirements. 

Numerous reports and policy recommendations have recommended the establishment of a professional development framework to facilitate the implementation of teacher professional development, with senior secondary school history teachers being no exception (Moses, 2018). This provides an opportunity for the establishment of continuing professional learning programmes to enhance the professional knowledge and competencies of both trained and untrained instructors in the areas of content and pedagogy (Gidado, 2022). 

1.2 Statement of the Problem 

Teacher Professional Development (TPD) is indispensable for the purpose of enhancing the quality and advancement of educators and influencing the teaching and learning process (Owodunmi, 2023). Nevertheless, the majority of teacher professional development appears to be ineffective in achieving the desired impact on teaching and learning. In order to maintain a high standard of teaching and learning, it is crucial to provide opportunities for continuous professional development (CPD). It is essential and appropriate for teachers to engage in continuing professional development to remain informed about the evolving trends in the teaching profession. However, the field of research in Nigeria has paid little or no consideration to the impact of teacher professional development on student achievement in mathematics. It is in this vein that, the study sought to generally examine the impact of teacher professional development on student academic achievement in mathematics.

1.3 Objectives Of The Study

The overall aim of this study is to examine the impact of teacher professional development on student academic achievement in mathematics. Hence, the study will be channeled to the following specific objectives;

Ascertain the impact of teachers' pedagogical skills training and development on student achievement in mathematics.

Ascertain the impact of teachers' technology integration training and development on student achievement in mathematics.

Ascertain the  impact of teachers' classroom management training and development on student achievement in mathematics.

1.4 Research Question

The following questions are formulated inline with the study objectives;

What is the  impact of teachers' pedagogical skills training and development on student achievement in mathematics?

What is the  impact of teachers' technology integration training and development on student achievement in mathematics?

What is the impact of teachers' classroom management training and development on student achievement in mathematics?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

Ho1: Teachers' pedagogical skills training and development has no significant impact on student achievement in mathematics.

Ho2: Teachers' technology integration training and development has no significant impact on student achievement in mathematics.

Ho3: Teachers' classroom management training and development has no significant impact on student achievement in mathematics.

1.6 Significance of the Study 

The information generated from this study is expected to be used as the basis for the TPD initiator in planning mainly by considering the following; identifying better approaches to deliver training to teachers, training focus be openly declared and plan for monitoring and evaluation mechanism to assess the impact of training to teachers. Teachers who receive training need to be accountable for the fate of the training. Nevertheless, the information from the research can be used in providing a room for researchers to conduct further studies on how to make school teachers update their knowledge and skills with the changing world of science and technology. The study findings are also expected to add new knowledge to the body knowledge on how in-service training to school teachers influences the quality of education and students academic performance. Again results of this study are expected to influence policy and decision makers on how to rectify the situation so as to make school teachers competent enough so as to prepare a good foundation to students for excelling in the next levels of education.

1.7 Scope Of The Study

The study focuses on the impact of teacher professional development on student academic achievement in mathematics. However the study will be delimited to some selected secondary schools in Owerri Metropolis, Imo State.

1.8 Limitation Of The Study

Like in every human endeavour, the researcher encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size. More so, the researcher simultaneously engaged in this study with other academic work. As a result, the amount of time spent on research will be reduced.

Moreover, the case study method utilized in the study posed some challenges to the investigator including the possibility of biases and poor judgment of issues. However, the investigator relied on respect for the general principles of procedures, justice, fairness, objectivity in observation and recording, and weighing of evidence to overcome the challenges.

1.9 Definitions of Terms

Professional Development: This has to do with specific skills that are prepared for teachers with a view to enable for proper discharge of roles and responsibilities, these includes; formal college degrees, formal coursework, workshops, conferences, mentoring etc.


This material content is developed to serve as a GUIDE for students to conduct academic research



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