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  1. Background of the study

The majority of the globe, especially developing countries, are presently dealing with substantial employment issues and widespread recent work deficiencies, which is a phenomenon that has the potential to spread poverty more widely. It is not just a major economic issue, but it also has social ramifications that touch practically all countries and individuals, either directly or indirectly. According to Castaneda, Serrani, and Sperotti (2016), it produces societal turmoil and heralds a wave of criminality. Some nations have likewise been plagued by persistent youth unrest and an unstable socioeconomic framework. The current turmoil in Nigeria and other African nations might be due to the rising prevalence of unemployment and underemployment. Most countries are dealing with the danger of unemployment, which has become a serious challenge to national security.

Corollary, youth social disaffection increases, fueling crime, youth unrest, and higher security investment that might be employed for national development. For example, the Middle Eastern instability that led to the Arab Spring was caused by the region's rapidly rising unemployment rate (International Labour Organization (ILO), 2011:1). Yet, the threat of unemployment is not restricted to developing nations; the 2011 unrest in the United Kingdom that resulted in store looting was blamed on the country's rising jobless rate (The Guardian, 2011). The underlying difficulty has always been the rising number of young people entering labour markets each year. According to Ahmadu (2018), a nation's peace, tranquillity, and survival are linked to how the government conducts a plan of action to reduce unemployment and, as a result, reduce the number of willing adolescents and adults who are the fundamental instruments used in insurgent operations.

Historically, Rivers State's original inhabitants were mostly farmers and fishers. Nonetheless, the rise of oil companies in the states increased labour mobility and concentration in the search for white collar jobs. When the state's population grows, the number of available employment becomes so restricted that multiple teenagers, both employed and unemployed, compete for these few openings. The unemployment gave a greater platform for vulnerable adolescents in Rivers State to be recruited into various criminal organisations. According to Dayo(2019), from 2005 to the present, violent linked crimes among jobless adolescents have escalated to the point where national security is jeopardised. In Rivers State, they include armed robbery, kidnapping for ransom, cybercrime, political thuggery, vandalism of oil pipelines, and oil bunkering, among other things. For example, in the early hours of New Year's Day, thirty-six individuals were shot, with fourteen deaths returning from church in Omoku, Rivers State. Nwakanma (2018). Unfortunately, "Rivers State" is rife with cults and cultism. The government admitted the presence of 100 cult organisations; we documented an additional 16 cult groups" (Ijuye-Dagogo, 2018). The high rate at which innocent people fall prey to the firearms of criminals, particularly the powerless class, has made Nigeria's state of unemployment and insecurity a cause for concern.

    1. Statement of the problem

In Nigeria there is high rate of poverty, unemployment and leadership failure. Most citizens do not have trust on the government and its political architecture. Some Nigerians have sourced for asylum or have migrated to Europe, America, Asia and some African countries. Some have abandoned their communities and relocated to other communities within the state, countries and or internally displaced persons camps (IDP) for safety. The growing level of unemployment in Rivers State is impacting negatively on national security.In a bid to harnessing, controlling and utilizing the resources of the regions to benefits the indigenes, the youths, young adults and even a good number of child have resolved to restive measures which have been evident in political thuggery, illegal oil bunkering, firearms business, kidnapping, piracy, militancy and other social vices which are dangers to the stability of democracy in Nigeria (Blaug, 2017).

Since 2005 to date, violent related crimes among unemployed youths have increased such that the national security is under threat. These include, armed robbery, kidnap for ransom, cybercrime, political thuggery, vandalizing of oil pipes, oil bunkering, among others in Rivers State. For instance, in the early hours of the New Year day, thirty-six people were shot, with fourteen fatalities coming back from church at Omoku, Rivers State. (Nwakanma, 2018). Sadly, “Rivers State is saturated with cults and cultism. The Government itself acknowledged the existence of 100 cult groups, we listed an additional 16 cult groups. The arm insurgency in the region traces its roots to a perceived sense of neglects by both oil companies and national government. Despite its strategic and economic significance, human development indices for the state are starkly behind national averages. Furthermore, the pollution resulting from oil and gas prospecting have affected indigenous sources of livelihood like fishing and brought home disease, malnutrition and high fatality rate beside serious environmental repercussion. Also, poverty remains endemic despite the billion flowing into the national coffers. Poverty however exacts and inevitable social toll, and for an impoverished people, crime is often and easy step from deprivation. Although Khalid (2019) observed that, the Federal government is spending heavily on the military while the Nigerian Police has always received vehicles and communication gadgets in the name of curbing insecurity in the country, yet the problem remains without solution as the security strategies of the combined force of the military are not yielding substantial. Implicitly,insecurity has caused our country dearly both in terms of life lost and material resources. Budgetary allocations meant for the wellbeing of citizen are being appropriated for military hardware as security votes to the detriment of other sectors of the economy like education, health care, agricultural imputes and the growth of infrastructural facilities (Ahmadu 2018) as the the proponents of this criminal act uses joblessness and or poverty which are direct ingredients of basic weapon to blackmail their adherents into submission.Upon this premise, it is pertinent to undertake deeper studies on the nexus betweeen unemployment and insecurity.

1.3 Objective of the study

The study is aimed at investigating unemployment and insecurity in Nigeria. Specifically, the objectives of study are:

  1. Find out the relationship between unemployment and Increase in Crime Rate in Rivers state.

  2. Find out the relationship between unemployment and the emergence of Cult Groups.

  3. Find out the relationship between unemployment and increase in Civil Unrest and Internal Aggression in River State.

1,4 Research Hypotheses

Ho1: There is no relationship between unemployment and increase in Crime Rate in Rivers state.

Ho2: There is no relationship between unemployment and the emergence of Cult Groups.

Ho3: There no relationship between unemployment and increase in Civil Unrest and Internal Aggression in River State.

1.5 Significance of the study

This study is significant as it will take an in-depth analysis into the root causes of insecurity in Rivers state and as well investigates various criminal activities and their effect on the state. The finding of the study will prove an insight for policy makers on the need to review frameworks to tackle unemployment as the sole variable that influences youth restiveness within the state. Also, governments will through this work understand the basic problems retarding the growth of the region thus, proffer possible solutions. Finally, this study will contribute in no small way to the literature in this area of study and serve as a reference material to scholars and study who wishes to conduct further studies in related field.

1.6 Scope of the study

The scope of this study borders on Insecurity and unemployment : a case study of Rivers state. The study will further discuss the relationship youth joblessness has on increase in crime rate, emergence of cult groups, civil unrest and internal aggression in Rivers state. The study is however delimited to selected Youths in Porth Harcourt in Rivers State.

1.7 Limitation of the study

The researchers encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. The significant constraint was literature on the subject owing that Insecurity and unemployment discourse is vast thus the researcher incurred more financial expenses and much time was required in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size covering only residents of Youths in Porth Harcourt in Rivers State. Thus findings of this study cannot be used for generalization for other states within Nigeria. Additionally, the researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work will impede maximum devotion to the research. Howbeit, despite the constraint encountered during the research, all factors were downplayed in other to give the best and make the research successful.

1.9 Definition of terms

Unemployment: This is a situation in which those willing and able to work do not find any, at the prevailing wage rate.

Criminal Activities: Criminal activities are referred to as those activities that violate the law of the society and are punishable under the law.

Insecurity: insecurity is a state of not being secure, it represent lack of defense and fear and confidence. It is a state where citizen of a nation lives in fear of loss of their lives and properties due to inadequate defence from government.

This material content is developed to serve as a GUIDE for students to conduct academic research

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