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This project work deals on the design and implementation of a Rf based wireless batch counting device for brewery capable of counting the bottled products in the conveyor and displaying the value numerically and wirelessly to its receiver installed about 100 meters away.  This project is realized in two functional units: the transmitter and receiver units.  The transmitter unit is installed in the conveyor while the receiver unit is installed at a remote location. They interact by the principle of electrical resonance using Radio frequency transmission waveband.  An Opto-coupler realized with Light dependent Resistor (LDR) and Laser diode form the sensor/electronic eye that detects the presence of bottle.  The output signal of the sensor unit is processed and used to cause the Tuned Radio Frequency (TRF) transmitter module to radiate an Rf signal to its receiver, some meters away.  On receiving the radiated signal, its output is processed and used to clock a 2-digit decimal counting unit that displays the number of counted bottles numerically.  This system implies a lot in computer, and EEE.  As a surveillance system, if the recorded value is not equal to the single unit version also installed in the front end of the conveyor, the workers involved will be fired. This system can only communicate to the receiver over a range of 100m maximum.  At the end of every production cycle, if the recorded value on the stand alone type is less than the value recorded by this system, the workers get queried.  The result being a system which can count the number of bottled drinks and relay the number/value wirelessly to a receiver some meters away.  It is not microprogram control rather pure random logic.



Title Page






Introduction                                                                     1

1.1   General Description Of The Project                          2

1.2   Objectives Of The Study/Project                              3

1.3   Significance Of The Project                                      4

1.4   Scope Of The Project                                                        5

1.5   Project Report Organization                                     6


2.0           Literature Review                                             7

2.1           Historical Development Of The Project             7

2.2           Applications Of The Project                              9

2.3           Theories And Models Relevant To The Design 10

2.3.1        Electromagnetic Spectrum

(Range And Radio Wave)                                  10

2.4           Radio Frequency Wave Band                           15

2.6           The Seven-Segment Led Display                      17

2.6.1         Tuned Class C Amplifiers                                       19

2.6.2                Transistor Static Switch And

Electromagnetic Relay                                     21

2.7              Other System Component Description                      26

2.7.1        Resistor                                                           26

2.7.3        Capacitor                                                         29

2.7.4         Transformers                                                  32

2.7.5        Junction  Diodes                                             34

2.7.6        Voltage Regulator 78xx                                    36


3.0   System Design And Analysis                                    39

3.1   Description Of The System Building Blocks             39

3.2   Block Diagram Development Into

Working Circuit                                                       40

3.4           System Design Specifications                          42

3.5           Power Supply Unit                                           43

3.6           Principle Of Operation Of The System              44

3.7           System Design Calculation                              46

3.6.1      Design of the filter capacitor                           46

3.6.2      Design Of The Laser Diode                       48

3.6.3      Design Of The Transistor static switches  48


4.1   Implementation                                                               51

4.2   Testing                                                                     52

4.3   Result                                                                      52

4.4   Project Packaging                                                     53


5.0   Problems Encountered, Recommendation                       55

And Conclusion

5.1   Problem Encountered                                              55

5.2   Recommendation                                                     56

5.3   Conclusion                                                              57

References                                                               58



1.1.           Background of the Study

Owing to the high rate of industrial espionage and theft, industrial security techniques need to be improved to arrest/combat pilfering in industries.  This project work tries to bring in an improved security measure which can be used to check pilfering in Brewery industries.  Pilfering of bottled drinks is a common theft in Breweries.  And this act is perpetrated in the conveyor before a standalone counting device takes account of it. This has a tremendous effect on the stature of the fire – if it is not properly checked, could lead to liquidation and bankrupts of the firm.

Conventionally, there is a batch counting device that counts the bottled drinks and displays the values numerically at same spot carrier criminals who pilfer the products divert it before the counter.  This chronology in social vices in the brewery industry has motivated me to embark on a project that is capable of counting/the bottled drinks in the capable of counting/the bottled drinks in the conveyor and display the value numerical and wirelessly (using Rf transmission waveband) to its receiver installed about 100m away. This device will count the product before it gets to the standalone version.  This technique will help to check pilfering and bring industrial espionage to halt.

1.2.           Problem Statement

Brewery industries all over world face the problem of pilfering of the products by the workers most frequently in the conveyer. This menace gave way to the development of a stand alone batch counting device which is usually installed in the conveyors to record the total number of bottled products. This techniques is facing serious threat since the bad-eggs pilfer/divert the products before it gets to the counter.

Owing to the challenges mentioned above, there is need to develop a system which will be installed at the entry point of the conveyors to count the products without the consent of the workers and display the value to a receivers unit  installed in the manager office using Radio-frequency technology.

1.3.           Aims and Objectives

The aim of this project is to design and implement a Radio frequency based wireless batch counter capable of counting bottled drinks/products and display it at a remote location.

1.      To develop system which can communicate using Radio frequency technology.

2.      To develop an opto coupler module which can detect opaque objects like bottle using laser diode and visible light

3.      To develop a 2-digit decimal counting unit which can count from 00-99.

4.       To develop a system which is pure hardwired. No micro-program.

5.      To develop a  power supply unit that can power Rf device.

1.4.           Significance of the Project

This project work signifies a lot in telecom, computer and electronic engineering it is very useful in a number of domestic places like in bedroom and security lamps in the compound.  A project of this type if modified can be used as a gate/door opening system, car immobilizer and for industrial process control.  Another vital significance of this system is in the control of Air conditioner and refrigerators and other lamps in modern buildings.  This system can be used to start and stop a power generating set from a distance.

1.5.           Scope of the Project

This project work covers the following; Tuned Radio-frequency transmitter and receiver modules, Ne555 timer, Decimal counting unit, Decoders and transistors and electromagnetic relay.  It also lays great emphasis on passive and active components used to implement the system.  It also x-rays the mode of calculations of the basic parameters used in the design and other areas of application of the device.  This report elaborates on the block diagram and principle of operation of the system.

1.6.           Limitations

1.      This project work is focused on the design and implementation of Rf batch counter for brewery.

2.      It is a prototype of the real-life system due to the ratings of the components used to implement it.

3.      It can only count products in an opaque bottle? (Filled or partially filled)

4.      It uses only Radio frequency to communicate with the receiver

5.      The system is powered using power from MAINS.

6.      The receiver displays a maximum of 100 counts (00-99) and does not contain a memory device for storage of data.

1.7.           Project Report Organization

This project report is presented in six chapters to appropriately illustrate the steps involved in its implementation.  Chapter one introduce the design overview, objectives and significance of the project.  Chapter two is basically the literature review and some theories relevant to the design.  Chapter three is on the system design analysis while chapter four elaborates on the implementation, testing and result.  Finally chapter five summarizes the entire thesis and recommendations.

1.8.           Definition of Terms:


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