Agriculture | CHARACTERIZATION OF SOME RUBBER GROWING SOILS

CHARACTERIZATION OF SOME RUBBER GROWING SOILS

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ABSTRACT

A study was carried out in the Rubber growing soils of Utagba-ogbe in Ndokwa-West Local Government Area of Delta State, Nigeria. The aim was to characterize the soil in respect of their morphological, physical and chemical properties. Six mapping units were mapped out, and 4 profile pits dug in each of them in order to characterize the soils. Soil samples were also collected from the soil profile horizons and analyzed for their particle size distribution and chemical properties. The chemical properties evaluated were the soil pH, organic matter, total nitrogen, available phosphorus, exchangeable bases, exchange acidity and cation exchange capacity. The morphological properties were also examined and described. These include soil colour, mottle, texture, structure, consistence and horizon boundary. Results of the study showed that the soils irrespective of pedons were deep, non-mottled with varied textures. The structure ranged angular blocky, to sub–angular blocky. The consistence ranged from friable, slight plastic to very plastic in the subsoil horizons. The boundary descriptions were clear, smooth, diffuse, and wavy boundary. The physical characteristics showed that the soils were sandy loam at the surface to sandy clay loam and clay loam in the sub-soil horizons. The soils were generally acidic 5.5 – 6.5, high in organic matter content, total nitrogen, but low to moderate in phosphorus, basic cations, CEC and base saturation. The results showed that the rubber growing soils were moderate in fertility. In order to sustain rubber production for a long time, regular fertilization and liming should be carried out to maintain rubber production in the soil.

TABLE OF CONTENT
Cover page                                                                              i
Certification                                                                              ii
Dedication                                                                               iii
Acknowledgment                                                                     iv
Table of Content                                                                     v
Abstract                                                                                  vi

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1     Background of the study                                                1
1.2     The objective of the study                                              3

CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1     Origins and Distributions        of Rubber                        4
2.2     Varieties of Rubber                                                        4
2.3     Uses of Rubber                                                              5
2.4     Climatic Requirement                                                    5
2.5     Soil Requirements                                                          6
2.6     Agronomic Practices                                                     7
2.7     Propagation Methods                                                    8
2.8     Maintenances of Rubber                                                 9
2.8.1  Weeding                                                                         9
2.8.2 Establishment and maintenances of Ground Cover          9
2.8.3  Watering/irrigation                                                        10
2.8.4  Harvesting and Processing of Rubber                               10
2.8.5  Rubber Tapping System                                                  11
2.8.6  Processing of Rubber                                                     12
2.8.7  Pests and Diseases of Rubber                                        12

CHAPTER THREE 
MATERIALS AND METHODS
3.1     Description of the Study Area                                       14
3.2     Field Study/Sample Collections                                      15
3.3     Laboratory Methods                                                      16
3.4     Analytical Procedures                                                    17
3.4.1  Particles size distribution                                                17
3.4.2  Soil pH (Electrometric Method)                                        19
3.4.3   Soil Organic Matter (Walkley Black Wet Oxidation Method) 19
3.4.4  Total Nitrogen (Kjeldahl Procedure)                              20
3.4.5  Available Phosphorus                                                   21
3.4.6  Exchangeable Bases                                                    21
3.4.7  Exchange Acidity                                                           22
3.4.8  Cation Exchange Capacity                                            22
3.4.9  Percentage Base Saturation                                        22
CHAPTER FOUR
RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
4.1     Morphological Properties                                              23
4.2     Particles Size Distribution                                             24
4.3     Chemical Properties                                                     30

CHAPTER FIVE
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1     Summary                                                                       40
5.2     Conclusion                                                                     41
5.3     Recommendation                                                           41
References                                                                       42

CHAPTER ONE

1.1

...

1.2

...

The Objective of the Study
The objective of the study include:

  • The characterize the soil in relation to their morphological, physical and chemical properties.
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