IMPACT OF TELEVISION ADVERTISING MESSAGES ON ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION AMONG UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS IN LAGOS STATE.
1.1 Background of the Study
A sort of business communication called television advertising, sometimes known as TV advertising or TV advertisements, entails developing and broadcasting advertisements or content on television. These advertisements are often short videos or clips that aim to grab the audience's attention and urge them to do something, like buy something, use something, or change their behavior.Television advertisements can vary widely in terms of content, style, and duration. They are a popular medium for reaching a wide and diverse audience, making them a valuable tool for businesses and organizations to promote their products, services, or ideas(Atkin, 2018). However, TV advertising often takes place during commercial breaks within TV programs, sports events, or other televised content.
Similarly, television advertising on alcohol has lead to an increase in alcohol consumption. According to Brown (2019), states that when viewers are exposed to enticing and persuasive advertisements that portray alcohol as glamorous, desirable, or associated with positive experiences, they may be more likely to consume alcohol and consume it in larger quantities. Additionally, it is commonly assumed that television programming and advertising practices can have a broad impact on viewers' behavior. There is a generally held assumption that viewing programs and commercials that show or promote alcohol consumption may lead to increased drinking among viewers. Although it has been shown that many television programs contain extensive portrayals of alcohol use (Greenberg, 2019) and that numerous alcoholic beverage advertisements appear on network television (Atkin et al., 2018), the empirical evidence on the effects of such cues on actual alcohol consumption is surprisingly sparse and inconclusive (Smart, 2018).
Further more, with respect to program content, the first studies (McEwen and Hanneman, 2016; Smart and Krakowski, 2015) examining alcohol use and portrayals in television programs showed a surprisingly high frequency of such cues. This continues to be the case in more recent research (Carlso et al., 2019). Beyond that, in a randomized laboratory trial, Rychtarik et al. (2016) found that students (aged 15- 24) who were shown the television program on alcohol advertisement were subsequently more likely to choose an alcoholic beverage over water as the beverage is most appropriate for serving. Subsequently, these results suggest that television programs may influence student's attitudes toward alcohol use, the effects of television program content on actual drinking behavior were not investigated.
On the one hand, the alcoholic beverage industry asserts that "they do not design their advertising to convince people to drink more. Rather, the companies say that they are trying to increase their individual shares in an existing market" (Eisler, 2015). Additionally, several countries yielding to increasing public pressure have recently banned or restricted certain alcohol advertising on television (Atkin et al., 2018).Alcohol advertisements connect consumption of alcohol with attributes particularly important to undergraduate students such as friendship, prestige, sex appeal and fun (Grube & Wallack, 2018). Therefore, a survey will be conducted in order to investigate on impact of television advertising messages on alcohol consumption among undergraduate students in Lagos state.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
One of the most concerning potential risks associated with advertising regarding to the undergraduate students, who often lack an understanding of the persuasive influence of advertisements and are in the phase of developing habits that could endure throughout their lifetimes. However, advertisers uses persuasive themes like product quality, humor, sex appeal, romance/relationships, good looks, personal/professional acceptance, youthful vigor, good health and hanging out/partying to sell their products. The positive depictions of advertisers’ products positively impress the undergraduate students. These students have been victims to advertisers’ manipulation given their susceptibility to emotional appeals of advertising (Standard & Poor’s Industry Trends, 2017). Further more, despite the enactment of relevant legislation and campaigns against alcohol abuse there is continued abuse/consumption of alcohol among undergraduate students.
It is in the light of these that the study seeks to examine impact of television advertising messages on alcohol consumption among undergraduate students in Lagos state.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The main purpose of this study is to find out the impact of television advertising messages on alcohol consumption among undergraduate students in Lagos state. Specifically, the study will;
1. Determine whether there is a significant relationship between television advertising messages and alcohol consumption among undergraduate students.
2. Find out whether television advertising messages stimulates students interest in alcohol consumption.
3. Find out whether television advertising messages influences the purchase intention of alcoholic products.
4. Find out whether television advertising messages increases students patronage of alcoholic products.
1.4 Research Questions
The following questions have been prepared for the study:
1. Is there a significant relationship between television advertising messages and alcohol consumption among undergraduate students?
2. Do television advertising messages stimulate the interest of undergraduate students in alcohol consumption?
3. Does exposure to television advertising messages influence the purchase intention of alcoholic products among undergraduate students?
4. Does exposure to television advertising messages increase the patronage of alcoholic products among undergraduate students?
1.5 Significant of the Study
The impact of television advertising messages on alcohol consumption among undergraduate students in Lagos state will be revealed to the government at various levels, stakeholders involved in education policies, teachers, university lecturers, school management, media houses and students in this study. It will enlighten students on need to be aware of the manipulative tricks of the alcohol industry and know that consumption of alcohol has both short and long term health consequences (Atkin,2019) and also help lecturers and school management on implementation of the policies and legislation regarding alcohol. Furthermore, this research will be useful to media house to disseminate information to a large population regarding the dangers and health risks involved in taking alcohol.
Additionally, subsequent researchers will use it as a literature review. This means that other students who may decide to conduct studies in this area will have the opportunity to use this study as available literature that can be subjected to critical review. Invariably, the result of the study contributes immensely to the body of academic knowledge with regard to the impact of television advertising messages on alcohol consumption among undergraduate students in Lagos state.
1.6 Scope of the study
The scope of this study is boarded on the impact of television advertising messages on alcohol consumption among undergraduate students in Lagos state. Empirically, the study will determine whether there is a significant relationship between television advertising messages and alcohol consumption among undergraduate students, find out whether television advertising messages stimulates students interest in alcohol consumption, whether television advertising messages influences the purchase intention of alcoholic products and find out whether television advertising messages increases students patronage of alcoholic products.
Geographically, the study will be delimited to undergraduate students in Lagos State University, Nigeria.
1.7 Limitation of the study
In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, language barriers, and the attitude of the respondents.
In addition, there was the element of researcher bias. Here, the researcher possessed some biases that may have been reflected in the way the data was collected, the type of people interviewed or sampled, and how the data gathered was interpreted thereafter. The potential for all this to influence the findings and conclusions could not be downplayed. More so, the findings of this study are limited to the sample population in the study area, hence they may not be suitable for use in comparison to other schools, local governments, states, and other countries in the world.
1.8 Definition of Terms
Advertising:a means of communication with the users of a product or service. Advertisements are messages paid for by those who send them and are intended to inform or influence people who receive them
Alcohol: a drink especially when considered as the intoxicating agent in fermented and distilled liquors.
Consumption: the action of using up a resource especially alcohol.
Student: a person who is studying at a university or other place of higher education.