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AN ASSESSMENT OF THE PATTERNS OF WORKPLACE VIOLENCE AND ITS EFFECT ON THE PSYCHOLOGICAL WELL-BEING OF NURSES IN HÔSPITAL GÉNÉRAL DE YAOUNDÉ

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AN ASSESSMENT OF THE PATTERNS OF WORKPLACE VIOLENCE AND ITS EFFECT ON THE PSYCHOLOGICAL WELL-BEING OF NURSES IN HÔSPITAL GÉNÉRAL DE YAOUNDÉ

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Study

Workplace violence refers to any instance or indication of physical aggression, psychological abuse, harassment, intimidation, or other forms of disruptive behaviour that pose a threat to the workplace environment. However, workplace conduct refers to the actions and interactions that take place among workers at the job. According to Gimenez Lozano et al. (2021) the spectrum of violence in this context encompasses several forms, including verbal harassment, physical attacks, and even instances of killing. Furthermore, acts of workplace violence perpetrated by patients, visitors, coworkers, and others  give rise to concerns over the personal safety of all employees. Workplace violence has numerous detrimental effects, including causing victims to be absent from work. Remarkably, the health industry comprises over 25% of all workplace accidents involving violence, with over 50% of healthcare professionals having experienced violent attacks (Samir, 2022). Also, Clark (2019) reports that nurses are the primary target of attacks in the healthcare sector, comprising almost 80% of all assaults. It is worth noting that this statistic is likely to be an underestimate. Given that, it is widely acknowledged that the healthcare industry is highly vulnerable to workplace violence as a result of competition among professionals and the presence of difficult or dissatisfied patients. Therefore, it is crucial to implement policies, raise awareness, enhance physical security, and provide training in order to minimise workplace violence as much as possible. Workplace violence results in the deaths of around one million individuals globally. During the period from 2009 to 2011, approximately one million individuals in the United Kingdom experienced workplace violence. Additionally, the prevalence of workplace violence among nurses varies across different countries and regions, including Africa, Asia, Latin America, and many developing countries (Hong, 2022). In Ethiopian public health facilities, the rate of workplace violence among nurses can be as high as 29.9% (Ma, Y., Wang, Y., Shi, Y., et al., 2021), while in Egyptian obstetrics and gynaecology departments, it can reach as high as 86.1%. Africa, specially Nigeria is not exempt from experiencing workplace violence directed towards nurses. According to Ogbonnaya (2019), a tertiary hospital in Abia state, Nigeria there were worrisome rates of up to 88.1%, while in a Southwestern City, the rates were 53.5%. Similarly, a study conducted in Osun State revealed a 67% prevalence of workplace violence among nurses in the hospital. Therefore, it is imperative for every institution, department, and unit to ensure a workplace atmosphere that is free from violence. To achieve this, threatening behaviour is strictly prohibited. This can be accomplished by implementing preventive guidelines and establishing a rapid response mission to address any unforeseen violent incidents (Sheppard et al., 2022). Nevertheless, workplace violence among nurses is a concerning and basic violation of human rights, as it has detrimental effects on both the physical and psychological well-being of nurses, as well as on organizational success. The aforementioned condition results in diminished quality of nursing care for the patient and exacerbates psychological issues among nurses. Although it is a significant issue, however, there has been a lack of comprehensive research conducted in Cameroon regarding violence victims, who are reluctant to report incidents of violence due to reasons such as job insecurity, shame, fear of recurring violence, and lack of support from family members and relevant authorities. Consequently, a survey will be carried out in order to assess the patterns of workplace violence and its effect on the psychological well-being of nurses in Hôspital Général de Yaoundé.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

Workplace violence can manifest in several healthcare environments, such as hospitals, nursing homes, primary health care settings, and psychiatric facilities. However, there are several factors that increase the likelihood of workplace violence. These include intimate interaction with persons who have a history of violence, societal and job-related stress, company regulations, employees' psychological traits, and personal qualities (Van, 2019). In addition, health care workers particularly nurse are vulnerable to the danger of encountering aggressive behaviours from patients and their families due to their close contact to them and the patients' potential illness, injury, or stress (Kim & Chang, 2022). Najaf et al. (2018) categorised five predisposing characteristics linked to workplace violence. These factors encompass unfulfilled expectations of patients/relatives, ineffective organizational management, inadequate professional communication, factors pertaining to nurses such as inadequate stress management and lack of clinical competence, and factors involving patients, patients' relatives, and colleagues such as distrust in nurses' job performance and a negative public perception of the nursing profession. Hence, it is in the light of these that the study seeks to assess the patterns of workplace violence and its effect on the psychological well-being of nurses in Hôspital Général de Yaoundé.

1.3  Objectives of the Study

The main purpose of this study is to assess the patterns of workplace violence and its effect on the psychological well-being of nurses in Hôspital Général de Yaoundé. Specifically, the study will;

1.Find out the impact of workplace violence on the psychological well-being of nurses at Hôspital Général de Yaoundé

2.Find out the underlying factors associated with workplace violence among nurses at Hôspital Général de Yaoundé

3.Find out  the coping mechanisms employed by nurses in response to workplace violence incidents at Hôspital Général de Yaoundé.

4.Find out the strategies for improving the overall safety and well-being of nurses at Hôspital Général de Yaoundé.

1.4 Research Questions

The following questions have been prepared for the study:

What is the impact of workplace violence on the psychological well-being of nurses at Hôspital Général de Yaoundé?

What are the underlying factors associated with workplace violence among nurses at Hôspital Général de Yaoundé?

What coping mechanisms do nurses employ in response to workplace violence incidents at Hôspital Général de Yaoundé?

What strategies can be implemented to improve the overall safety and well-being of nurses at Hôspital Général de Yaoundé?

1.5  Research Hypotheses

H0: There is no significant relationship between patterns of workplace violence and the psychological well-being of nurses at Hôspital Général de Yaoundé.

Ha: There is no significant relationship between patterns of workplace violence and the psychological well-being of nurses at Hôspital Général de Yaoundé.

1.6  Significance of the Study

The study findings highlights the importance for healthcare administrators and politicians to tackle the problem of workplace violence and prioritise initiatives that aim to improve the mental health nurses. By allocating resources towards efforts that foster resilience, healthcare organizations can enhance their ability to assist nurses in managing workplace issues and alleviating the psychological repercussions of violence. Additionally, subsequent researchers will use it as a literature review. This means that other students who may decide to conduct studies in this area will have the opportunity to use this study as available literature that can be subjected to critical review. Invariably, the result of the study contributes immensely to the body of academic knowledge with regard to the patterns of workplace violence and its effect on the psychological well-being of nurses in Hôspital Général de Yaoundé.

1.7 Scope of the study

The scope of this study is boarded on  the patterns of workplace violence and its effect on the psychological well-being of nurses in Hôspital Général de Yaoundé. Empirically, the study will find out the impact of workplace violence on the psychological well-being of nurses, the underlying factors associated with workplace violence among nurses, the coping mechanisms employed by nurses in response to workplace violence incidents at Hôspital Général de Yaoundé and the strategies for improving the overall safety and well-being of nurses at Hôspital Général de Yaoundé

Geographically, the study will be delimited to nurses of Hôspital Général de Yaoundé, Cameroon.

1.8 Limitation of the study

In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, language barriers, and the attitude of the respondents. In addition, there was the element of researcher bias. Here, the researcher possessed some biases that may have been reflected in the way the data was collected, the type of people interviewed or sampled, and how the data gathered was interpreted thereafter. The potential for all this to influence the findings and conclusions could not be downplayed. More so, the findings of this study are limited to the sample population in the study area, hence they may not be suitable for use in comparison to other schools, local governments, states, and other countries in the world.

1.9 Definition of Terms

Workplace violence: any act or threat of physical violence, harassment, intimidation, or other aggressive behavior that occurs in or is related to the workplace (Al-Shiyab & Ababneh, 2018)


This material content is developed to serve as a GUIDE for students to conduct academic research



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