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THE EFFECT OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ON THE ADMINISTRATION AND MANAGEMENT

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ABSTRACT

The main purpose of this research work is to determine the impact of information Technology on 7up Bottling Company, Enugu. In order to achieve their purpose or objective very successfully the researcher has taken consideration: The meaning or concept of information Technology, the negative and positive effects of information Technology, the personnel/staff etc. Having observed the above, the researcher equally delved into the problems associated with information Technology. Consequently, the conclusions reached were that certain factors such as staff redundancy, fraud, high maintenance or repair cost are some of the problem associated with information at 7up bottling company. The researcher made effective management and applied information Technology.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1    Background of the Study

Information is not only the basic of human existence. It is also the life wire of running of any organization. This is consequent upon the face that decisions are based on information for effective decision making and effective executive of those decisions, there must be transmitted to the end-users after it had been process. Information receipt processing, storage, dissemination etc. May be instant, otherwise valuable business opportunities might be lost. That is what information technology (IT) seeks to do in business administration and management.

The development of information technology has come a long way. The first writing in the world was invested by Egyptians priest around four thousands B.C. At first the writing was a series of whole picture, which were drawn to tell a story. This took a long time and later on the priest learned to draw parts of picture to represent the whole much later on still the picture were drawn not to represent objectives, but to represent sounds. Thus the picture of a house was drawn not to represent the actual building, but the sound “HAUS”. Gradually, the method of confuting was improved upon until one letter was used to represent one sound. This is how the first alphabet was made. The priest wrote with a red pen and made ink by mixing soot and gum with water.

But the scope of the writing called the HIEROGLSPICS was restricted to priests, hence it was called SACRED writing. The correcting was used to record important religious ceremonies, medical fats and records of kings and nobles. The most important wirings were recorded or carried of stones while the less important records were kept on these stripes a feed known as PAYRUS a plant that grew on the banks of the River Nile. The modern word “Paper” came from papyrus.

Other ancient ways of writing include the SUMMER VAN CUNELFORA, ANTHENIAN OSSTRAKON, JEWISH SCHOOL or parchment, which was writing on animal skin. The bible recorded in Exodus 3: 18 and the Lord gave Moses when he (God) has made as an end of speaking with him upon the amount sin; the two tables of stone writing was the finger of God”. As Assyrian king named Assurbanipal was said to have about twenty thousand way table in his private library.

For their information dissemination, the ancient world employs a number of ways. The Greek used rennuer. The marathon race today is in honor of an Athernian runes who not only ran all the way from Athens to Sparta to call the sparkans to the battle field but also after the Persians had been defeated at a place called marathon ran a further 35 kilometers to Athers to report the victory, after which he feel down dead after announcing the victory.

The old-talking drums, going etc. were also used to send out information. In emergency situations, a section of the forest could be set on five to warn people of impending or sudden enemy attack. All these various mean of receiving, storing and sending information in the ancient times have been replaced by the vast array of machines in the modern world. This is what is called information technology, which refers to a host of equipment and materials, essentially computer-based that are used in the modern world for information receipt, processing storage and dissemination.

The invention of the printing machine of a German called John Gutenberg; the calculation machine invented by Charles Babbage in 1855, the type writer invented in 1886 by the sholes brothers of America, the invention of the telephone in 1876 by a soot Alexandra Graham Bell, the invention of radio in 1895 by marches Marconi; the television in 1922 by Johnlodis Baiod; the turnaround brought about with the invention of the photographing machine in 1826 by Joseph Niece, a French and so on have marked a turning point in information technology. From the earliest times to the modern times, precisely the twenty-first century information.

Primary stage     -       Use of human labor

Secondary          -       Use of electrical machines

Tertiary stage     -       Use of electrics machines

The modern age is aptly called the age of machines or the machine age. This is turn in the light of the numberless communication gadgets and information equipment that have flooded the market. But the greatest of this revolution is the computer, which has now revolutionized the primary stage was the period during which human labour was used enormously information receipt, storage and dissemination. At that time, electricity was not popular as it came into human existence in 1831 by Michael Faraday. They manual type writer came under this stage.

The secondary stage was the period during which electricity became the source of power for some machines. The electric type writings came under this stage also many other machines that become electrically powered. The last is the tertiary stage, which is the present age of electronics is the power source of communication equipment.

1.2    Statement of Problems

Information technology has given birth to many complex machines, some of which are beyond the operational scope of an average businessman.

According to Liwsch 91964) the machine age brought about the development of method. Business executives administrative, managers and staff need to go beyond their natural endowment to be able to understand the operate and procedures of these machines and also be able to operate these machines themselves. This makes drawing a since-qua-non. But only very few business and individuals can afford the high costs of draining required operating those machines. This cost becomes impossibility when it involves an oversea draining.

Moreover, the cost of acquiring the machines is very exorbitant. The exchange date of the naira is too down to earth when compared with other major currencies of the world, like the American dollars, British Pounds, Japanese Yen, German Dutch mark, French, France etc. The cheapest manual portable typewriter cost about nine thousand naira is one of financial capability of some business organizations, how much more the computer, photocopies tax machines etc whose cost into nearly incurred of thousands of naira to purchase.

The light cost of machine is almost defeating the goal at information technology.

Another problem associated with information technology is servicing and maintain of the machines. All these machines are manufactured in lightly technology advanced countries such as Germany, France, Japan, Britain etc colon they are imported into Nigeria and other third world countries the user nations lacks the expertise and technical know-how to maintain and service the machines. This is because the qualifies service personnel required to service that are not brought along with the machines. The implication of this are those himself technicians are forced to service the machines. Rather than putting the equipment back into use, they spoil it. This result is scrapping many of the machines when these machines breakdown the business can no longer use than and the reparations of the business are greatly impaired.

Finally, the word of information technology is an ever changing sea. The rate at which the manufacturers and producers turn out these machines overwhelms stake holders in the business world. It is very difficult to keep pace with the influx of these communication gadgets. As new discoveries are made, now machines are manufactured with their attendant different operation procedures. This unsure about what is to replace the preserve machines.

1.3    Purpose of the Study

The main purpose of this study is to find out the impact of information technology on business administration and management of business organization, in addition, this study will also try to

i.             Establish the true meaning of business in the modern world.

ii.            Find out what level of training is required for proper handling of product of information technology.

iii.          Determine the different environment under which business are operated in the modern world of information technology.

iv.          Find out the personal characteristic or the absentees appropriate for information technology personnel.

v.           Make recommendation on ways and means of making information technology more efficient and effective.

1.4    Research Questions

1)           Has information technology made any impact on 7up company in Nigeria?

2)           Has the various machines of information technology on the administration and management require effective lending?

3)           Has information technology revolutionized the business world?

4)           Has information technology resulted in staff redundancy in business today?

5)           Has various machines and equipment are used in information services?

6)           Has business cannot be successful run today without the information technology?

1.5    Research Hypothesis

The following hypotheses have been advanced for the purpose of this study

Ho:   Information technology has a direct impact on the administration and management of business organization.

Hi:    Information technology has a direct impact on the administration and management of business organization.

Ho:   Information has not revolutionized business today.

Hi:    Information has revolutionized business today.

1.6    Scope of the Study

This study is limited of the effect made by information on business administration. This covers both the positive and negative impact of information technology.

The 7up bottling company at 9th mile Enugu was a case study operator of the various machines in information services who are the major stakeholders in the information industry were also interviewed.

1.7    Significance of the Study

There is no gain saying the dace that this study will benefit a number of people in a numbers of ways.

It is hoped that through this study, the stakeholders in the information industry would be enlighten in terms of knowledge, qualification, experience and performance appraisal.

Moreover, it with highlight the need for lighter institutions of learning and other agencies engaged in the training of computer or information service to combine theory with practical. This can only be made possible if those school are agencies procedure the machines themselves.

The larger society will benefit from this study in that it will educate them on the many sides to information technology and the effectives in business administration and management in the modern business world.

In addition, this study will be of significance to the government with suspect to policies on importation of information equipment. The high costs of these machines are consequent upon the light tariff imposed on the machines. If the import tax is relaxed or lowered, the cost of the machines become less and therefore affordable.

Finally, the study no doubt will contribute to learning and then add to the frontier of knowledge.

1.8    Definition of Terms

1)Effect: Is a change that somebody or something courses in somebody or something else.

2)Administration: Is the activities that are done in order to plan organize and run a business, school or other instituting.

3)Management: Is the act of running and controlling a business or similar organization.

4)Business organization: This are the organization of people that come together in a business way or from, with the sole aim of profit maximization of producing the leanest possible profit for its own.

Background Information on 7up Bottling Company 9th Mile

Seven-up bottling company started business in Nigeria in 1960 as a limited liability company. Seven-up bottling company plc is one of the largest independent manufacturer and distributor of well-known and viable consumed branded of soft drinks in Nigeria form nine manufacturing plants.

Libanese Mohammed El-Khalil who came to Nigeria in 1926 rounded the company Mohammed is the father of the company, current chairman Saysal Elkkalil. The company metamorphosed from a very successful transport business (El-Khalil Transport) in a  bid to diversity the largest transport company in west African in the early 1990’s when pepsi international took over seve-up international, the company plc engages in company other its products under the 7-up mirinda pepsi and mountain dew brands.

Seven-up was incorporated in Nigeria in 1959 as a private limited liabilities company under the name, seven-up limited. Its name was later changed to seven-up bottling company plc in 1991 to compile with the company and allied matters act 1990. The majority of company’s stated, 75% OX heeled by the El-Khalil family which has moved the business from a distributorship to the sole manufacturer and marketer of the pepsi cola brand in Nigeria.


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