ASSESSMENT OF THE IMPLICATION OF FULANI HERDSMEN BANDITRY ACTIVITIES ON COMMUNITY SETTLEMENT.
1.0 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The Fulani unarguably represent a significant part of the economy of Nigeria. They are the major breeders of goats, sheep and cattle as those animals are the major source of meat and affordable source of animal proteins ate by Nigerians.
The Fula origin also known as Fulani are a mass inhabitants widely dispersed in all of Africa, but most predominant in West Africa. The Fulani people are descendants from Middle East and North Africa. However, the history of the Fulani origin began with the Berbers of North Africa around the 8th or 11th century AD (Anter, 2015). Over a millennium ago from AD 900 - 1900, they spread to most parts of West Africa and to some areas of Central Africa (Anter, 2015). The Fulani migrants were predominantly Muslims. In the opening of 18th century, there were revolts between the Fulani and the local community people.
Most of the Fulani people are nomadic in nature, herding sheep, goats and cattle across the dry grass lands of their environs and making them the main pastoral nomadic group in the world. The main Fulani sub groups in Nigeria are: Fulbe Gombe, Fulbe Adamawa, Fulbe Sokoto, Fulbe Mbororo, and Fulbe Borgu (Kasarachi, 2016).
The Fulani own over ninety percent of the livestock population which accounts for one-third of agricultural GDP and 3.2% of the entire GDP in Nigeria (Fabiyi & Otunuga, 2016). The Fulani herdsmen mostly move with their cattle’s from one destination to another in search of grazing land especially in the dry season. When the Fulani light-skinned herders are migrating, they are often accompanied by their dark-skinned sedentary kinsmen (urban or town Fulani), who are better educated, more dynamic as politicians, and were fanatical and versed as Muslims than the former. When the herders encounter local opposition to their encroachments, the sedentaries provide the requisite political and military strategy for resistance, and when the sedentaries felt the need for socio-religious cleansing (a jihad), the herdsmen provide the rank and file of the fighting forces.
However, the Fulani herders in most cases settled in fertile areas to rear their cattle and when the migration continued to be dictated by economic and socio-political factors, increased trends of conflicts between the herders and their host communities (farmers) escalated.
Many Nigerians lost their lives, properties/ farmlands or crops every year to Fulani herders. The conflicts between Fulani herdsmen and farmers came into existence as a result of encroachment of farmlands by the Fulani herders.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Nigeria is under a severe internal and security threat as the threat has political, economic and environmental dimensions. Each of these dimensions has critically affected the stability of the nation and can be traced to many factors in which the Fulani-herdsmen appears to be major factor. Most worrisome in the present development is the pillaging, raping, killing and kidnapping by the so called Fulani herdsmen. Stories are found in the national dailies on daily basis of how these shepherds strategically attack several communities and houses, with sophisticated assault gunsAK-47.In recent times, the killings recorded by Fulani herdsmen and farmers clash has rampaged most communities, displacing them of their farmlands and loss of their major source of livelihood. This is becoming unbearable with the Fulani herdsmen always having their ways, leaving the farmers at their mercy. Herdsmen attribute the roots of the crisis to religious differences resulting in the killing of their cows while the farmers see the herdsmen as a threat to their crops and agricultural produce since the herdsmen allow their cows to feed on the farmer crops. However the tolls keep going and at the extreme the activities of Fulani herdsmen continue to affect community settlement.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY.
The purpose of this study is to critically assess the implication of Fulani herdsmen banditry activities on community settlement. Specifically it is geared:
To examine the causes of Fulani herdsmen banditry activities on community settlement
To determine the implications of Fulani herdsmen activities on community members
To investigate the rate at which Fulani herdsmen banditry activities affects community members and settlement.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study will enable Public security agents in Nigeria on the need to be exposed (by way of periodic training) to the globally tenable best practices and know-how of counter-banditry in order to boost their operational efficiency in combating violent crimes and activities in general. It will heighten the awareness of government on the need to come up with credible and implementable policies to curb the incessant attacks on common man and improve their livelihood. It will enlighten community settlers on the need to be security conscious and prepare themselves with other self-defence mechanism in the absence of quick response from government enforcement agencies.finally the study will also contribute to the general body of knowledge.
1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This study is to critically assess the implication of Fulani herdsmen banditry activities on community settlement. Specifically it will examine the causes of Fulani herdsmen banditry activities on community settlement. It will determine the implications of Fulani herdsmen activities on community members. It will investigate the rate at which Fulani herdsmen banditry activities affects community members and settlement. However the study is delimited to selected local government in Ogun State.
1.6 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
H0: There is no impact of Fulani herdsmen banditry activities on community settlement
H0: The rate at which Fulani herdsmen banditry activities on community settlement is low
1.7LIMITATION OF STUDY Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview). Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
1.8 Operational Definitions
Implication: this the effect an action has on something or the conclusion that can be drawn from something although it is not explicitly stated.
Banditry: Banditry is a type of organized crime committed by outlaws typically involving the threat or use of violence. A person who engages in banditry is known as a bandit and primarily commits crimes such as extortion, robbery, and murder, either as an individual or in groups.
Fulani Herdsmen:Fulani herdsmen or Fulani pastoralists are nomadic or semi-nomadic Fulani people whose primary occupation is raising livestock.
Community Settlement: community settlement are village's residents are organized in a cooperative.it is a group of people living in the same place or having a particular characteristic in common