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AN INVESTIGATION ON FACTORS AFFECTING EMPLOYEES RELATIONS IN ORGANIZATIONS IN CAMEROON

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AN INVESTIGATION ON FACTORS AFFECTING EMPLOYEES RELATIONS IN ORGANIZATIONS IN CAMEROON

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Study

Every organization needs to have a goal, be it to manufacture products or offer services. This might be done for charitable or commercial reasons. An organization needs the required production variables in order to generate goods and services. However, the human resource is the production factor that matters the most. If the company is to accomplish its desired aims, this resource needs to be handled very carefully (Dessler, 2018). Nowadays, companies understand that cultivating a healthy work environment among employees is essential to long-term success. Organizational culture, productivity, and ultimately the bottom line are all greatly impacted by employee relations, which is the dynamics, interactions, and general mood in an organization. Conceptually, the term “employees relations” is referred to as the interaction between employees and employers. Such interaction can either be formal or informal. It encompasses all areas of management that may include labor relations, employee involvement and participation, employee communication and industrial relations (Armstrong, 2018). According to Muhammad (2018), employee relations includes a set of organizational practices that address individual issues, underscoring the critical role they play in organizational evolution and performance. Indeed, the quality of employee relations significantly impacts an organization's ability to achieve its goals and meet its requirements. However, numerous factors influence employee relations and consequently, the organizational performance of an organization . One prominent factor impacting employee relations is organizational communication (Argyris, 2019). Effective communication channels facilitate transparency, clarity, and understanding among employees and management, fostering trust and collaboration. Conversely, poor communication practices often lead to misunderstandings, conflicts, and decreased morale, undermining employee relations and organizational cohesion. Similarly, Bass & Riggio (2018), asserts that leadership style and behavior are critical determinant of employee relations. Leadership sets the tone for workplace culture and directly influences employee engagement, motivation, and satisfaction. Supportive, empathetic leaders who prioritize employee well-being and development tend to cultivate positive relationships and foster a sense of belonging within the organization. On the other hand, disengaged or autocratic leadership negatively impacts employee relations by creating a toxic work environment, resentment, and disengagement. Moreover, organizational policies and practices also play a significant role in shaping employee relations. Fair and equitable policies, such as those related to compensation, performance evaluation, and grievance redressal, contribute to a sense of justice and respect among employees (Greenberg, 2020). Conversely, inconsistent or biased policies can lead to perceptions of favoritism, inequity, and discontent, eroding trust and morale in the organization. Furthermore, external factors, such as economic conditions, industry trends, and societal changes, are found to influence employee relations. Some previous research indicates that economic instability has lead to job insecurity and heightened stress levels among employees, affecting their interactions and morale. Likewise, industry disruptions or technological advancements  necessitate organizational changes, which, if poorly managed, can strain employee relations. Therefore, a survey will be conducted in order to investigate on factors affecting employee relations in organization in Cameroon.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

Employee relations play a crucial role in organizational success by influencing productivity, job satisfaction, and overall workplace atmosphere. In Cameroon, despite efforts to foster positive employee relations, challenges persist, impacting organizational effectiveness and employee well-being. Although positive employee relations are important, but many companies struggle to keep them that way. This has resulted in lower employee satisfaction, higher turnover rates, and less organizational effectiveness.According to  Budhwar & Debrah (2018), communication breakdowns between management and employees  hinder the development of positive employee relations. Similarly, Ngomo (2019), in his research observed that differences in cultural norms and management styles lead to misunderstandings, conflicts, and difficulties in building cohesive teams and fostering a harmonious work environment. Additionally, in Cameroon, inconsistencies in enforcement and compliance with labor regulations may lead to grievances among employees, contributing to strained relations with management (Bach & Bordogna, 2018). Nevertheless, essential components of fostering positive employee relations include aspects like building trust among employees, handling employee complaints effectively, fostering commitment to the organization, encouraging genuine social dialogue, and nurturing team spirit within the workforce.  Hence, it is in the light of these that the study seeks to investigate on factors affecting employee relations in organization in Cameroon.

1.3  Objectives of the Study

The main purpose of this study is to investigate on factors affecting employee relations in organization in Cameroon. Specifically, the study will;

1.Assess the effectiveness of the employee relations practices adopted in organizations in Cameroon.

2.Identify the key factors affecting employee relations in organizations in Cameroon.

3.Investigate the role of leadership styles and management practices in shaping employee relations in organizations in Cameroon.

1.4 Research Questions

The following questions have been prepared for the study:

How effective are the employee relations practices adopted in organizations in Cameroon?

What are the key factors that influence employee relations within organizations in Cameroon?

How does the role of leadership styles and management practices contribute to shaping employee relations within organizations in Cameroon?

1.5  Research Hypotheses

H0: The employee relations practices adopted in organizations in Cameroon are no effective.

Ha: The employee relations practices adopted in organizations in Cameroon are effective.

1.6  Significance of the Study

Employers and employees will both benefit from the study. Employees will benefit from the chance to share their unique viewpoints on labor relations and how they affect output. They can make suggestions on how to improve interactions between employees and employers. However management is also going to gain from this. They will be given the study's conclusions as well as suggestions made by the participants. Through this study, they will gain an understanding of the benefits of cultivating positive employee relations and how it affects performance. Furthermore, management in a variety of organizations, sectors, and businesses will learn from the study about the implications of employee-employer relationship practices. The focus will be on emphasizing the essential employee relations procedures that businesses use for the good of their employees. Moreover,  subsequent researchers will use it as a literature review. This means that other students who may decide to conduct studies in this area will have the opportunity to use this study as available literature that can be subjected to critical review. Invariably, the result of the study contributes immensely to the body of academic knowledge with regard to factors affecting employee relations in organization in Cameroon.

1.7 Scope of the study

The scope of this study is boarded on factors affecting employee relations in organization in Cameroon. Empirically, this study will assess the extent employee relations practices are adopted in organizations in Cameroon, identify the key factors affecting employee relations in organizations in Cameroon and investigate the role of leadership styles and management practices in shaping employee relations in organizations in Cameroon. 

Geographically, the study will be delimited to staff of some selected organization in Douala, Cameroon.

1.8 Limitation of the study

In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, language barriers, and the attitude of the respondents. In addition, there was the element of researcher bias. Here, the researcher possessed some biases that may have been reflected in the way the data was collected, the type of people interviewed or sampled, and how the data gathered was interpreted thereafter. The potential for all this to influence the findings and conclusions could not be downplayed. 

More so, the findings of this study are limited to the sample population in the study area, hence they may not be suitable for use in comparison to other schools, local governments, states, and other countries in the world.

 1.9 Definition of Terms

Employee Relations: refers to the interactions, dynamics, and relationships among employees within an organization and between employees and management, encompassing communication, teamwork, conflict resolution, and workplace atmosphere (Olaolu, 2019)

Performance: the extent to which an individual, team, or organization successfully achieves predetermined goals, objectives, or standards within a given time frame.

Motivation:  the internal or external factors that drive an individual to initiate, sustain, and direct their behavior towards achieving a particular goal or fulfilling a need.

Employee: an individual employed by an organization or company to perform specific tasks or duties in exchange for compensation.


This material content is developed to serve as a GUIDE for students to conduct academic research



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