INDISPENSABLE TOOL FOR EFFECTIVE ADMINISTRATION
As long as human being need each other
in behaviour and action economic activities as well as administration are
becoming more and more complex, organizations are lending towards grouping
together, while in sit of organizations are globally.
Institutions in the same group or
ministries may frequently be separated geographically by considerable distance.
Often therefore, it is impossible for a public organization and administrators
to hold effective meeting or to contact all interested parties.
Consequently a good communication
becomes essential to the effective operation of any organization or
administration and institutions.
and Buker (1983) defined communication as the conveying of thought, opinions,
desires and data to some one else but it more than just an exchange of
evidence. For the receiver must understand, communication to effective whatever
you say or write, thus, communication are concerned with the successful
transfer of message from the sender to the receiver.
Communication can also be seen as the
process by which one person (group) share and impact information to another
person or (group) so that both people and group can clearly understand one
Communication is the passing of
information, news etc. the various and felling from the person to another James
From there above therefore, it can be
said that communication is not just the giving of understandable information
and receiving and understanding the message thereby sent. Communication is the
transmission of a message from a source through a channel to a destination.
PW Atkuns (1987), To him communication
could be verbal, radio, written etc. He further stated that because human
beings cannot survive without communication more especially administration of
Communication therefore exists
everywhere and it has now become an indispensable tool for effective
According to Strams .G Sayles (1992)
communication are concerned with the eructation, transmission, interpretation
and use of information. Communication can be on a person to person basis, as
when a boss tells, some one what to do and when a subordinate report back to his
superior from this point.
Communication can also be on
department/corporate basis in all organization. When the various department
interchange information from one department to the other, reaction report, and
comments that more or less effectively up again.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
In a cross cultural study on communication involving the USA, Japan and Britain it was
discovered that communication breakdown was the simple greatest barrier to
corporate excellence. Inefficient communication in an organization is
symptomatic of a fairly corporate, chain. When the administrators in an
organization are friendly, and have a good working report, communication tends
to be very good but when the numbers of the organization engaged to be mutual
distrust, resentment, gossips or when there is a feeling of incompetence and
insecurity there is bound to communication breakdown, and communication
breakdown can lead to the downfall of every administrators, management as well
as an organization in general.
However, all the key functions of administrators and
organization such as planning, organizing, directing and controlling depend on
the effective form proper execution. The role of communication to
administrators is highlighted by the fact that in an empirical study it was
discovered that white-collars employed communicated. 70% of the time. These
involve any of the formal mean of communication listening, speaking, reading
Directing as one of the key function of administrator it
requires effective communication from proper execution. All good leaders
encourage effective communication by having established channels (formal and
informal) means of transmitting information to people when the Leader, Set, the,
Pace for open communication by encouraging subordinate to be frank, by
soliciting information and sending with feed back he set a good organization climate for
administrators. In all enterprises, effective organization channel is requires
to transmit company policies, programmes rule and regulatory agencies and the
general public. It is through good communication with board of directors management
and administrators papers and
subordinate than an administration maintains good will grows and waxes. The
effect of communication in an organization can be measured in terms of attitude
and performance for it affect the moral of the employers and their attitude
toward the leadership or administration and consequently productivity.
The good administrator recognizes the fact that it has to
transmit skill and knowledge through the various mean or source of
communication to those the organization through it directing, controlling,
organizing, ability to decision making and coordinating techniques. Also the
quality of communication skill posses by the administrators determines his
degree of accomplishment. After all the primary function of an administrators
in the management of relation between the institution and it environment in the
over all goal of achieving optimal performance of the primary task of the
For administration the word communicator save two key functions.
It provides a vehicle by
which one can implement a plan for action coordinated toward a common goal.
It provide a mean by which
member of the organization can be motivated to execute the plan willingly and
Therefore, the issuance of orders and the elicit of
participative responses are totally dependent on communication.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The background of communication also include the
statement of the communication problem i.e communication is a two way traffic
that is information is not only from the supervisor or subordinates. It also
emanates from subordinate to supervisor in an organization. Communication does
not only between organization but information could also be passed
horizontally, for instance within institution from one department to another
e.g in Kaduna Polytechnic from the department of public administration to the
department of Local Government studies.
From the foregoing, it could be discovered that poor
communication be an institution or organization may lead to conflict at the department
or efficient and effective communication therefore these research would examine
erotically the following question otherwise referred to as statement of the
problem so as to establish fact about. The importance or effective communication
in an institution;
Do management communicate to
employee through the right channel?
What method of communication
does the management employed to reach all and sundry in the institution?
Do union leaders as
representatives of the splices perform their link age role for the interest of
employee and management?
How does the worker in
different department share common views among themselves?
Why it is that communication
as a soul for any organization is not being effectively use by management to
bridge the gap between employees and the management more especially concerning
economic matter that may favour the employees.
For instance increase in pay or wages, bonus fringe
benefits, leave allowance etc. these and many other research question that are
still vital to the success of this project as well as beneficial to the
researcher as well as the institution that depend largely on the essence of
effective communication will be involved into course of this research.
Then this chapter cannot be complete without discussing
one of the different areas in an organizational communication.
This deals with his function. In Nigeria the
conflict between the supervisor and subordinate generally originates from the
apparent failure of the subordinate to carry out instruction completely. An
incite supervisor who find out his instructions have not been implemented reprimands,
his subordinate and call humans.
He could accuse him of being lazy, careless, checking in
imagination and common sense and a misfit in the organization. The subordinate
in the other hand will believes that he is innocent and does not deserve such a
castigation react un-lengthy and accuses his boss of special hatred for him and
all the people from his area and poses on his perception to all who like him. This
bread will fell mutual distrust and hatred that effect productivity and
administration function in the organization.
To avoid this ugly situation, it is important that
healthy man to man instruction be very clearly stated. This effectiveness of
giving clear instruction depends on the following.
The instruction should be
complete and indicating what should be done, the quality of performance desired
and the time when the assignment is to be finished.
Compliance should be
reasonable. That is with the capacity of the person receiving the instruction
under conditions prevailing at the time
The instruction should be
clear by the executive giving the instruction that is the ideas of his mind can
actually be transmitted to the person being directed.
The key point of the major instruction
should be put in writing (whenever possible).
1.3 THE OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
However from the name above we refer to
as the aims or what the communication want to achieve in the field of
administration, organization, as well as some of the institution.
Therefore, the study of communication as an
indispensable tool for effective administration would be beneficial and the
objective of many individual and organization.
1.3.1 Student of public administration
would find this scholartory work very interesting in the course of the study on
More importantly, the entire
tertiary institutions on Nigerian would objectively find this study very
informative and appreciate as well as a tool for effective administration
within their institution.
Lastly, is the researcher to
acquire information about communication is all about which included the
importance, methods, patterns and barriers to effective communication, a
business and public service organization, or administration.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
organization function by means of collective actions of people et each
individual is capable of taken independent action which may not be reported
properly to other people who ought to know about it. Good communication are
required to achieve a coordinated result.
Effective communication are to brings about good
relationship between individual workers and management, because his terms and
condition of work are clearly specified in his contract of employment and in
provides a suitable atmosphere for attainment of organization goods, boosting and morals of workers and higher
1.5 DEFINITIONS OF TERMS
The following operation terms of ideas
facts, opinions, information and understanding it is the transfer or
transmission of information, and understanding from one person to another.
Communication may also be referred to as
a meaningful interaction among human being, more especially, it is also a
process by which meaning are read and perceived an understanding. A word
communication can be refer to as a transfer of idea from the sender to the
receiver. Communication can also be seen as an indispensable management tool.
Any means that an individual uses to transfer meaning, ideas, feeling, emotion
or attitude, to, other ,in, communication.
The accomplishment of the desired goal.
The framework of an organization under which the employees work. It sees the
day to day meaning of an organization.
The employees can be defined as the personnel who are hired for a specific term
or other wise for the performance of duties for certain reward. Employees are
manpower of any organization and they are normally referred to as “The work
force” that is human resources.
The movement of an employee from one job to another. One unit to another or one
shift to another and may involve a new geographical location. It may be imitated
by the organization.
This is a type of transfer involving a cut in pay, status, privileges or
opportunity. It may result from organization staff reduction, disciplinary
penalties, or the liabilities of the employees to perform adequately in a
this is a type of transfer involving higher pay. Increased responsibilities,
more privileges, increased benefits and greater potentials.
the person whom a message is sent
The person sending the message
Special language development by different.