NIGERIA'S FUTURE SECURITY CHALLENGES AND IMPLICATIONS FOR INTERNAL, REGIONAL, AND GLOBAL SECURITY
1.1 Background of the Study
Further in the south, a new wave of attacks has unraveled ranging form of unknown gunmen to hoodlums breaking into security networks, burning down police stations, triggering counter attack by the from Nigeria, has suffered from persistent ethnic, religious and political violence since independence from the British in 1960. It went through a civil war between 1967-1970, the Maitasine crisis in the 1980s; sporadic ethno-pastoral conflicts particularly in the Middle Belt; and militancy in the oil producing Niger Delta region in the southern part of the country. In the past decade in particular, there have been a spate of violent attacks linked to the group notoriously known as ‘Boko Haram’ in the northern part of the country where thousands of lives have been lost and extensive damage to property suffered, setting the already slow development of the region even further backwards. Furthermore, conflict between nomadic herdsmen, cattle rustlers, and farmers in Middle-belt has most recently expanded to other parts of the country with an escalation in the spate of violent clashes resulting in several deaths with entire villages being burnt down, and animals and farmlands being destroyed.
thee military, making the region an unbearable for the common man to enjoy peace of mind. Also is the ongoing agitation in the southeastern part of the country by pro-Biafra groups for the establishment of a Sovereign State of Biafra, instigating secessionist tendencies all these raises concerns for its implications on the nation, the region and the global security environment in the near future.
Although, Nigeria continues to intensify its efforts in tackling both the security as well as the Humanitarian crisis in the short to medium term, the underlying religious, socio-ethnic and political factors, which have created an enabling environment for the lingered security to take hold thus also need to be addressed intensively in the medium to long term to curb the uncertainty that has has bedeviled the sovereignty of the Nigeria State. Therefore it is upon this premise that this study is set to examine Nigeria's Future Security Challenges and Implications for Internal, Regional, and Global Security
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
There is no doubt that the spate of insecurity in the country is alarming. There are several security challenges which cut across the nooks and crannies of the country. The most common is the terrorists’ attacks in North,unknown gunmen raiding police stations in Southeast, herdsmen and bandit attacks in Middlebelt and secessionist threats among different ethnic groups.
With the dynamic and changing International Security environment it is hard to predict the future particularly with new and emerging challenges. However, extrapolations can be made by looking at some of the drivers and trends shaping Global Security. Thus this inter-relation between regional and security trends, Terrorism, State fragility, and Geopolitical uncertainty are all factors that have been identified as driving forces shaping the future of the Nigeria internal, regional and global security environment.
Additionally, according the World Economic Forums 2016 Global Risk Report, the top five Global risks in terms of likelihood include: large-scale involuntary migration, due to extreme weather events, failure of climate change mitigation and adaptation, interstate conflict with regional consequences, and major natural catastrophes will not cease to emerge.
For Nigeria given its strategic position as a key actor in both the LCBC region West Africa, and to a certain extent the Sahel, challenges of insecurity and national instability would have potential risks and repercussions for neighbouring countries and the region as a whole. As Africa’s most populous country the potential implications of an economic crisis as well as spill over effects of the Boko Haram crisis in the northeast, the escalation of violence linked to the farmer-herder clashes, as well as the relapse of insecurity in the Niger Delta region pose existent challenges for the government, its neighbours, and the global security environment looking ahead. This reality highlights the importance of having a balanced menu of instruments of not only national power but emphasises the need for collaboration with regional as well as international stakeholders so as to curb this menace of insecurity since it is getting out of hand. This does not only demands innovation, since we are dealing with non-state threats, but also reinforces the importance of having the political will to ensure peace and stability for development of the country. Future direction must therefore be carved out from past as well as and current security trends as the implication is detrimental to both foreign relations, loss of investors interest, disruption of economic activities etc. Therefore it is against the backdrop that this study is set to examine Nigeria's Future Security Challenges and Implications for Internal, Regional, and Global Security.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The main focus of this study is to examine Nigeria's Future Security Challenges and Implications for Internal, Regional, and Global Security. Specifically it seeks to:
(1) Investigate the security challenges in Nigeria
(2) Examine the implications of insecurity in Nigeria and its effect on inter-governmental relationship with her neighbours.
(3) Find out the steps taken by the government to curb insecurity in Nigeria.
(4) investigate the role of international organizations in the fight against insecurity in members states.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTION
The research is guided by the following research question
(1) What are the security challenges in Nigeria?
(2) What is the implications of insecurity challenges in Nigeria and how its effect inter-governmental relationship between Nigeria and her neighbours?
(3) What steps have been taken by the government to curb insecurity in Nigeria?
(4) What is the role of international organizations in the fight against inseurity in members states?
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The research will be helpful to policy makers, international organization and Nigeria government. To the government and policy makers the study will enlighten them on the need to take the security by the horn and come up with strategies that can help reduce it to a minimal level considering it implication on inter-governmental relationship between her and other countries. To international bodies, the study will beckon them to come to the aid of Nigeria and suggest way to salvage the situation since it appears that they do not have much strategies to curb the problem of security. The study will contribute to the body of literature and serve as reference material for other researchers in this field.
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study borders on Nigeria's Future Security Challenges and Implications for Internal, Regional, and Global Security. The scope is limited to Nigeria
1.7 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Research methodology is the specific procedures or techniques used to identify, select, process, and analyze information about a topic.
Data Collection: This research is based on secondary data. The materials for this study is sourced mostly from written works from libraries and archives which will include: text books, articles, journals and publications relevant for the study.
Data analysis: The method of data analysis for this research is basically Qualitative and descriptive in nature.
1.8 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
The following factors poses to be a limitation during the course of this research
Financial constraint– Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview). Time constraint– The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERM
Regional Organizations: Regional organizations (ROs) are, in a sense, international organizations (IOs), as they incorporate international membership and encompass geopolitical entities that operationally transcend a single nation state. They have been established to foster cooperation and political and economic integration or dialogue among states or entities within a restrictive geographical or geopolitical boundary.
Insecurity: insecurity is a state of not being secure, it represent lack of defense and fear and confidence.
National Security: National security or national defence is the security and defence of a nation state, including its citizens, economy, and institutions, which is regarded as a duty of government.
1.10 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
The study is organized in five5) distinct chapters.
Chapter One deals with the introduction, statement of problem, purpose of study, research questions, significance, scope and limitations of the study.
Chapter Two review concept of insecurity and Investigate the security challenges in Nigeria.
Chapter Three will discuss the implications of insecurity in Nigeria and its effect on inter-governmental relationship with her neighbour.
Chapter four discusses the steps taken by the government to curb insecurity in Nigeria and investigate the role of international organizations in the fight against insecurity in members states..
Chapter five present the summary, conclusion and recommendation from the findings of the study.