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CRIMINALITY AND VIOLENCE AS GROWING PHENOMENA IN THE 21ST CENTURY GLOBALIZED WORLD

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CRIMINALITY AND VIOLENCE AS GROWING PHENOMENA IN THE 21ST CENTURY GLOBALIZED WORLD

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the study

Global governance has failed to keep pace with economic globalization during the last quarter-century (i.e., since the conclusion of the Cold War). As a result, although unprecedented openness in commerce, banking, travel, and communication has resulted in economic development and well-being, it has also provided enormous possibilities for criminals to thrive.

Organized crime has evolved, expanded globally, and grown to macroeconomic proportions: illegal products are sourced on one continent, transported across another, and sold on a third. Mafias are now genuinely a global issue, posing a security concern, particularly in impoverished and conflict-ridden nations. Corruption is fueled by crime, which has infiltrated business and politics and stymied progress. It also undermines the government by giving authority to people who act illegally: Drug cartels are wreaking havoc in Central America, the Caribbean, and West Africa; collusion between insurgents and criminal groups (in West Africa, the Sahel, and Southeast Asia) fuels terrorism and plunders natural resources; migrant smuggling and modern slavery have spread as widely in Eastern Europe as they have in Southeast Asia and Latin America; and authorities in many cities have lost control.

around the world. The danger posed by organized crime is so severe that the United Nations Security Council has examined its implications in Afghanistan, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Central America, Somalia, West Africa, and other areas numerous times (trafficking of arms, drugs, people, and natural resources).

Organized crime has altered strategic doctrines and threat assessments all across the globe. Armed forces have been sent to combat drug cartels, while warships have been dispatched to apprehend pirates. Despite this, the danger remains. Despite how serious the danger is, organized crime is little recognized. There is a scarcity of data on global criminal markets and trends. The few studies that have been done have focused on specific aspects of the issue, such as sectors or countries, rather than the overall picture. There can be no evidence-based approach to combating these crimes without a global view. As a result, the study's goal is to look at crime from a global viewpoint and provide potential methods for controlling it.

1.2 Statement of the problem

Global and transnational crime has recently resurfaced on the international agenda.The United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime entered into force in 2003. The United Nations High-level Panel on Threats, Challenges, and Change identified transnational organized crime as one of "six clusters of threats with which the world must be concerned now and in the decades ahead," citing human trafficking, particularly of women, cocaine trafficking, firearm trafficking, and illegal migration routes from the Mediterranean Sea.Law enforcement officials are also limited to actions within their national jurisdiction. Gathering reliable information on which to base this strategy is no easy task. Unlike "conventional" crimes (murder, rape, robbery et cetera), citizens rarely approach the police with complaints about organized crime. Many of the offences are "victimless", in the sense that none of the parties participating have any interest in bringing the matter to the attention of the police. Consequently, most organized criminal activity is only registered when the police take the pains to proactively investigate it. Some enforcement agencies lack the capacity, or the mandate, to do this.Transnational organized crime can have an impact on political stability in vulnerable countries, including both in countries where insurgencies and illegal armed groups are funded through trafficking (in the Andean region, South and Central Asia and Central Africa), and in countries where violence and corruption pose a serious challenge to the rule of law, like in West Africa. Thus, it is upon this premise that this study seeks to examine criminality and violence as growing phenomena in the 21st century globalized world.

1.3 Objective of the study

The main focus of this study is to examine,  criminality and violence as a growing phenomena in 21st century globalized world. Specifically, the study seeks

1. To examine the notion of transnational crime and violence

2. To examine critically the different types of transnational crime and violence

3. To proffer approach towards curbing transnational crime

1.3 Research Question

The research is guided by the following research question:

1. What is transnational or globalize crime and violence?

2. What are the forms of transnational crime?

3. What are the strategies or approach that can be helpful in curbing transnational crime

1.4 Significance of the study

Since the study borders on criminality and violence as a growing phenomenon in the 21st century globalized world, the findings of the study will be pivotal and helpful to international organizations and regional governments. The study will enlighten them to the need to come up with meaningful strategies on how to cooperatively curb transnational crimes, knowing that these syndicates have a connection with local crime and politics happening within their country. More importantly, the study will add to the body of empirical literature and serve as a resource for students and other researchers interested in conducting similar research.

1.6 Scope of the study

The scope of this study borders on criminality and violence as a growing phenomena in 21st century globalized world, considering specifically criminal activities in sub-saharan Africa and west Africa.

1.7 Limitations of the study

During the course of this research, the following factors are proposed to be a limitation.

Financial constraints: Financial constraints tend to impede the researcher's efficiency in locating relevant materials, literature, or information, as well as in data collection (internet, questionnaire, and interview).

Time constraint: The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. As a result, the amount of time spent on research is reduced.

1.8 Research Methodology

Research methodology is the specific procedures or techniques used to identify, select, process, and analyze information about a topic. For the purpose of this study, the researchers adopted historical and descriptive methods. Information was sourced from secondary data collated from journals, articles, library materials and internet sources which are related to the study.

1.9 Definition of Terms

Organized crimes: Organized crime is a category of transnational, national, or local groupings of highly centralized enterprises run by criminals to engage in illegal activity, most commonly for profit.

Violence : Violence is the use of physical force so as to injure, abuse, damage, or destroy.

Transnational Crime: Transnational crimes are crimes that have actual or potential effect across national borders and crimes that are intrastate but offend fundamental values of the international community.


This material content is developed to serve as a GUIDE for students to conduct academic research



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