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EXAMINING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN JOB DESIGN AND EMPLOYEE ABSENTEEISM (A CASE STUDY OF EMPLOYEES IN PRIVATE FIRMS IN CAMEROON)

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EXAMINING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN JOB DESIGN AND EMPLOYEE ABSENTEEISM (A CASE STUDY OF EMPLOYEES IN PRIVATE FIRMS IN CAMEROON)

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Study

Job design seeks to create jobs that align with the organization's objectives, while considering the talents, capabilities, and personal preferences of individual employees. According to Knapp and Mujtaba (2020), job design refers to the alteration of a job's content and processes with the aim of improving an employee's contentment, motivation, and productivity. Similarly, Buddhananda (2019), defined job design ass the methodical process of establishing the tasks and methods of a job in a manner that efficiently meets the varied requirements of the employee. Moreover, the configuration of a work has a substantial impact on employee motivation, job satisfaction, organizational commitment, absenteeism, and turnover (Ugboro, 2018). Furthermore, it encompasses several aspects of employment, such as internal and external organizational factors, as well as the structuring of activities, which influence the nature of work and its effectiveness (Campion, Mumford, Morgeson & Nahrgang, 2019). Additionally, job design pertains to the precise allocation of tasks and responsibilities to individuals or groups in their employment, as well as the strategies they utilize in order to complete these tasks (Holman, Clegg, & Waterson, 2022; Birnbaum & Somers, 2019). Nevertheless, the objectives of job design are to augment job satisfaction, promote productivity, elevate quality, and mitigate staff issues such as grievances and absenteeism.  The topic of employee absenteeism is a significant issue that has garnered attention from researchers worldwide in an effort to find solutions for its prevalence in both the private and public sectors. Employee absenteeism significantly impacts the financial performance of commercial firm, particularly private firms. Anderson (2019) discovered that there are various explanations for employee absences from work, including diseases, family matters (such as childcare or attending to a family member), personal concerns, or simply feeling entitled to time off.  According to a study conducted by Mercer (2020), "incidentally unplanned" absences lead to a 19% decrease in output. In addition to the escalated expenses, such as potential overtime, there is also the adverse impact on worker morale when they are required to take on additional responsibilities. 

Anderson (2009) highlighted a concerning observation that a significant number of highly skilled personnel are not present at their workplaces by 8:00am, the designated start time for work. Although this issue is particularly prevalent in the civil service. 

However, considering how important the survival of firms is including the private sector and its contributions to the economy, researchers are spurred to examine the extent to which designing the jobs of employee can curb the problem of absenteeism in organizations especially in the private firms. This is motivated by the hypothetic view of the fact that employees in some of the private firms  are most times idle while at work and are cumbered with grapevines with the excuse that there is no work to be done which may have been the reason for the incessant absenteeism at work because they feel even if they come to work there is nothing to be done. Therefore, a survey will be conducted in order to examine the relationship between job design and employee absenteeism.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

Absenteeism is a persistent issue in the workplace that many find difficult to solve, as there is no obvious cause or simple solution. Moreover, being a universal occurrence, it does not show bias towards individuals based on their gender, race, or religion. According to Bydawell (2020), employers are entitled to expect their employees to have good attendance since employment is a contractual agreement between two willing parties. The author further asserts that problems related to absenteeism are likely to occur in the employment relationship and should be resolved in a manner that is just and impartial to both the employer and the employee. In addition to the financial ramifications, absenteeism is affected by numerous interconnected factors that make it even more challenging to measure, assess, or resolve (Tylczak, 2018). One element that has been mentioned by various academics is an employee's level of job satisfaction in the workplace. Furthermore, George and Jones (2022) assert that numerous studies have examined the correlation between absenteeism and job satisfaction in order to identify strategies for mitigating absenteeism. On the other hand, previous studies on job satisfaction have highlighted the belief that absenteeism is mostly caused by job discontent (Steers, Porter & Bigley, 2018). According to McShane's (1984) review, as cited by Steers et al. (2018), there is evidence to support the idea that employees who are dissatisfied with certain parts of their jobs are more prone to being absent. According to McShane's research, job design is more strongly correlated with the frequency of absences rather than the total number of days missed (Steers et al., 2019). Thus, it is in the light of this, the study seeks to examine the relationship between job design and employee absenteeism ( a case study of employees in private firms in Cameroon.

1.3  Objectives of the Study

The main purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between job design and employee absenteeism. Specifically, the study will;

Assess the level of job satisfaction among employees in private firms in Cameroon.

Investigate the relationship between job design and employee absenteeism in private firms in Cameroon.

Investigate the impact of job design on employees’ engagement in private firms in Cameroon.

1.4 Research Questions 

The following questions have been prepared for the study:

What is the level of job satisfaction among employees in private firms in Cameroon?

Is there a relationship between job design and employee absenteeism in private firms in Cameroon?

What is the impact of job design on employees’ engagement in private firms in Cameroon?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

H0: There is no significant relationship between job design and employee absenteeism.

Ha: There is a significant relationship between job design and employee absenteeism.

1.6 Significance of the Study

The research will provide significant information for managers and human resource professionals who aim to decrease absenteeism and enhance workforce attendance. Also, an analysis of the elements of job design that contribute to absenteeism will inform organizational interventions focused on restructuring job responsibilities, redistributing duties, and improving job satisfaction. This, in turn, can promote a more involved and dedicated workforce. Additionally, subsequent researchers will use it as a literature review. This means that other students who may decide to conduct studies in this area will have the opportunity to use this study as available literature that can be subjected to critical review. Invariably, the result of the study contributes immensely to the body of academic knowledge with regard to the relationship between job design and employee absenteeism.

1.7 Scope of the study

The scope of this study is boarded on the relationship between job design and employee absenteeism. Empirically, this study will assess the level of  job satisfaction among employees, investigate the relationship between job design and employee absenteeism in private firms and the impact of job design on employees’ engagement in private firms in Cameroon.

Geographically, the study will be delimited to employees in some selected private firms in Cameroon.

1.8 Limitation of the study

In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, language barriers, and the attitude of the respondents. In addition, there was the element of researcher bias. Here, the researcher possessed some biases that may have been reflected in the way the data was collected, the type of people interviewed or sampled, and how the data gathered was interpreted thereafter. The potential for all this to influence the findings and conclusions could not be downplayed. 

More so, the findings of this study are limited to the sample population in the study area, hence they may not be suitable for use in comparison to other schools, local governments, states, and other countries in the world.

1.9 Definition of Terms

Job design: the process of structuring and organizing tasks, responsibilities, and roles in banking jobs to optimize efficiency, productivity, and employee satisfaction

Employee Absenteeism: the act of not being present at the workplace during scheduled work hours, which can include full days or partial days missed.

Job satisfaction: refers to the level of contentment, fulfillment, and positive feelings experienced by lecturers in relation to their work roles and environment in the university.


This material content is developed to serve as a GUIDE for students to conduct academic research



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  • Methodology: Yes available


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